Page 3 - Fifth Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada

9 Summaries and results for self-care and consumer product chemicals

9.1 Bisphenol A

Bisphenol A (BPA) (CASRN 80-05-7) is a synthetic chemical used as a monomer in the production of some polycarbonate plastics and as a precursor for monomers of certain epoxy-phenolic resins (EFSA, 2007). Polycarbonate plastics have wide application in consumer products, including storage containers for foods and beverages; they were also used in infant bottles in Canada prior to 2010. Epoxy resins are used as an interior protective lining for food and beverage cans. Additional end-use products containing polycarbonate plastics and resins include medical devices, some dental fillings and sealants, sporting and safety equipment, electronics, and automotive parts (EFSA, 2007; NTP, 2007). BPA is also used in the paper industry to produce thermal paper used for various products, including receipts, prescription labels, airline tickets, and lottery tickets (Geens et al., 2011).

BPA does not occur naturally in the environment (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008a). Entry into the environment may occur from industrial sources or from product leaching, disposal, and use (CDC, 2009).

The primary route of exposure to BPA for the general public is through dietary intake as a result of various sources, including migration from food packaging and repeat-use polycarbonate containers (Health Canada, 2008). Health Canada updated its dietary exposure estimates for BPA after completing a number of surveys in which BPA concentrations were measured in various foods, including canned foods and beverages, liquid infant formula, and samples from the Total Diet Study (Health Canada, 2012). Dermal exposure through handling of thermal printing paper is considered an important secondary route of exposure (EFSA CEF Panel, 2015). Oral exposure can also result from leaching of BPA from dental materials; however, the contribution to total BPA exposure is likely negligible (Becher et al., 2018; SCENIHR, 2015). Exposure can also occur from contact with environmental media, including ambient and indoor air, drinking water, soil, and dust, and from the use of consumer products (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008a).

In humans, BPA is readily absorbed and undergoes extensive metabolism in the gut wall and the liver (WHO, 2011). Studies have also suggested that it may be absorbed and metabolized by the skin following dermal exposure to free BPA in products such as those made from thermal printing papers (Mielke et al., 2011; Zalko et al., 2011). Glucuronidation has been recognized as a major metabolic pathway for BPA, occurring primarily in the liver and resulting in the BPA-glucuronide conjugate metabolite (EFSA, 2008; FDA, 2008). Conjugation of BPA to BPA-sulphate has been shown to be a minor metabolic pathway (Dekant and Völkel, 2008). The BPA-glucuronide metabolite is not considered to be biologically active and is rapidly excreted in urine with a half-life of less than two hours (WHO, 2011). Urinary levels of total BPA, including both conjugated and free unconjugated forms, are commonly used as biomarkers to assess recent exposures (Arbuckle et al., 2015a; Ye et al., 2005).

Characterization of the potential risk to human health from exposure to BPA includes key effects on the liver and kidneys as well as effects on reproduction, development, neurodevelopment and behaviour (EFSA CEF Panel, 2015; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008a; EU, 2010). In 2018, the U.S. National Toxicology Program published results of a comprehensive investigation of BPA toxicity and concluded that early-life and long-term exposures are unlikely to pose a health risk at low doses (NTP, 2018). However, the potential role of BPA and other environmental estrogens in the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer, remains under investigation (Heindel et al., 2015; Seachrist et al., 2016).

The Government of Canada conducted a science-based screening assessment under phase one of the Chemicals Management Plan to determine whether BPA presents or may present a risk to the environment or human health as per the criteria set out in section 64 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) (Canada, 1999; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008a). Based on information available at that time, the assessment concluded that BPA is toxic under CEPA 1999, as it is considered harmful to the environment and human health (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008a). Because of the uncertainty raised by the results of some laboratory animal studies relating to the potential effects of low levels of BPA, a precautionary approach was applied when characterizing risk. Considering the highest potential exposure and subpopulations with potential vulnerability due to potential differences in the toxicokinetics and metabolism of BPA identified in the assessment, the risk management strategy for health focused on decreasing exposure to newborns and infants (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008b).

Health Canada has concluded that current dietary exposure to BPA through food packaging is not expected to pose a health risk to the general population, including newborns and young children (Health Canada, 2012). However, exposure to BPA should be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and efforts should continue to limit BPA exposure in infants and newborns from food packaging applications — specifically pre-packaged infant formula products as a sole-source food. As part of the ALARA approach, Health Canada committed to supporting industry to reduce levels of BPA in infant formula can linings (Health Canada, 2014). Health Canada's findings confirm that alternative packaging materials for liquid infant formula products manufactured without BPA have been adopted by industry (Health Canada, 2014). As of March 2010, under the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act, Health Canada has prohibited the manufacturing, advertisement, sale, or import of polycarbonate baby bottles that contain BPA (Canada, 2010). The removal of bisphenol A in polycarbonate baby bottles and liquid infant formula can linings has led Health Canada to conclude that there has been significant progress toward meeting the human health objective for BPA set out in 2008 (Health Canada, 2018a). BPA is also identified as being prohibited on the List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients (more commonly referred to as the Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist or simply the Hotlist), an administrative tool that Health Canada uses to communicate to manufacturers and others that certain substances, when present in a cosmetic, may not be compliant with requirements of the Food and Drugs Act or the Cosmetic Regulations (Health Canada, 2018b). Risk management actions also have been developed under CEPA 1999 with the objective of minimizing releases of BPA in industrial effluents (Canada, 2012).

The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study is a national-level prospective biomonitoring study carried out in pregnant women aged 18 years and older from 10 sites across Canada (Arbuckle et al., 2013). In the MIREC study of 1,936 participants in their first trimester of pregnancy, the geometric mean and 95th percentile for total BPA in urine were 0.80 µg/L and 5.40 µg/L, respectively (Arbuckle et al., 2014). The Plastics and Personal-care Products use in Pregnancy (P4) study is a targeted biomonitoring study carried out in 80 pregnant women aged 18 years and older from the Ottawa area. The geometric mean and 95th percentile for total BPA in urine were 1.1 µg/L and 6.4 µg/L, respectively, based on analyses of multiple samples per woman (Arbuckle et al., 2015b). The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative (FNBI) is a nationally representative biomonitoring study of adult First Nations peoples living on reserves south of the 60° parallel (AFN, 2013). It comprises 13 randomly selected First Nations communities in Canada with 503 First Nations participants aged 20 years and older. The geometric mean and 95th percentile for total BPA in urine were 1.55 µg/L and 11.27 µg/L, respectively.

Urinary total BPA (including both free and conjugated forms) was analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) participants aged 6–79 years in cycle 1 (2007–2009), and 3–79 years in cycle 2 (2009–2011), cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data from these cycles are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of BPA in urine is an indicator of exposure to BPA and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 9.1.1: Bisphenol A (BPA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.1.1 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 9.1.1 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2560 93.8
(91.2–95.7)
1.2
(1.1–1.3)
0.27
(0.22–0.31)
1.2
(1.1–1.3)
4.5
(4.0–5.0)
6.7
(4.8–8.6)
3 (2012–2013) 5670 91.7
(90.1–93.1)
1.1
(1.0–1.2)
0.29
(0.27–0.32)
1.1
(0.95–1.2)
4.2
(3.6–4.8)
6.6
(5.8–7.5)
4 (2014–2015) 2560 91.9
(88.5–94.4)
1.0
(0.95–1.1)
0.26
(<LOD–0.33)
1.0
(0.94–1.1)
4.0
(3.2–4.8)
6.0
(5.0–7.1)
5 (2016–2017) 2647 81.5
(74.7–86.7)
0.81
(0.71–0.93)
<LOD 0.85
(0.75–0.96)
2.9
(2.6–3.2)
4.2
(3.1–5.2)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 9.1.1 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1281 93.3
(89.1–96.0)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
0.27
(<LOD–0.36)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
4.6
(4.1–5.2)
7.9Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(4.3–11)
3 (2012–2013) 2826 93.0
(90.9–94.6)
1.2
(1.1–1.4)
0.35
(0.25–0.46)
1.2
(0.99–1.4)
4.4
(3.7–5.0)
6.4
(5.2–7.7)
4 (2014–2015) 1273 94.6
(91.3–96.7)
1.2
(1.0–1.3)
0.35
(0.28–0.43)
1.2
(0.97–1.3)
4.3
(3.0–5.6)
6.2
(4.3–8.0)
5 (2016–2017) 1315 80.7
(72.1–87.0)
0.84
(0.69–1.0)
<LOD 0.85
(0.69–1.0)
2.9
(2.5–3.4)
5.6
(3.7–7.5)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 9.1.1 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 94.3
(91.8–96.1)
1.2
(1.0–1.3)
0.26
(0.21–0.32)
1.1
(0.98–1.3)
4.1
(3.0–5.1)
6.6
(4.9–8.4)
3 (2012–2013) 2844 90.5
(88.1–92.5)
1.0
(0.88–1.2)
0.29
(<LOD–0.39)
1.0
(0.91–1.1)
4.1
(3.3–4.9)
6.9
(5.4–8.4)
4 (2014–2015) 1287 89.3
(82.8–93.5)
0.92
(0.79–1.1)
<LOD 0.98
(0.82–1.1)
3.4
(2.8–4.0)
5.4
(3.6–7.3)
5 (2016–2017) 1332 82.3
(74.7–88.0)
0.78
(0.69–0.89)
<LOD 0.85
(0.72–0.99)
2.6
(2.2–3.0)
3.3
(2.6–4.0)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 9.1.1 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 524 94.1
(89.3–96.8)
1.4
(1.1–1.8)
0.30Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.46)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
5.4Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(1.9–9.0)
9.9Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(5.5–14)
3 (2012–2013) 521 92.6
(82.9–97.0)
1.2
(0.87–1.6)
0.29Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.47)
1.2
(0.95–1.5)
4.0
(2.6–5.4)
6.0
(4.3–7.7)
4 (2014–2015) 511 91.3
(84.2–95.4)
1.2
(1.0–1.4)
0.28Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.44)
1.2
(1.0–1.3)
4.0
(3.5–4.5)
6.4Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(2.9–9.9)
5 (2016–2017) 547 86.2
(77.2–92.0)
0.94
(0.72–1.2)
<LOD 0.99
(0.78–1.2)
3.0Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(1.9–4.1)
4.4Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(2.4–6.3)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1031 93.5
(89.1–96.2)
1.3
(1.2–1.4)
0.28
(<LOD–0.37)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
4.5
(3.8–5.1)
7.1
(5.5–8.7)
2 (2009–2011) 516 93.4
(88.9–96.2)
1.4
(1.1–1.7)
0.25Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.41)
1.3
(0.94–1.7)
4.6Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(2.6–6.6)
Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 1004 95.9
(94.6–96.9)
1.2
(1.1–1.4)
0.39
(0.30–0.49)
1.2
(1.0–1.3)
3.8
(2.8–4.8)
5.3Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(3.0–7.6)
4 (2014–2015) 511 94.4
(89.0–97.2)
1.1
(0.90–1.4)
0.29
(<LOD–0.40)
1.1
(0.83–1.4)
3.5
(2.6–4.4)
5.0
(4.0–6.0)
5 (2016–2017) 516 88.6
(83.8–92.1)
0.97
(0.83–1.1)
<LOD 0.94
(0.75–1.1)
2.9Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(1.8–4.0)
5.5Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(3.1–7.8)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 980 93.7
(90.2–96.0)
1.5
(1.3–1.8)
0.29
(0.22–0.36)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
5.9
(4.8–7.0)
8.3
(6.2–10)
2 (2009–2011) 512 94.4
(88.9–97.2)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
0.35
(0.23–0.47)
1.3
(0.99–1.6)
4.4
(2.9–5.9)
7.6Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(4.3–11)
3 (2012–2013) 992 92.3
(86.2–95.8)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
0.30Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.46)
1.4
(1.3–1.6)
4.8
(3.4–6.2)
8.0Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(4.1–12)
4 (2014–2015) 505 93.7
(88.7–96.6)
1.1
(1.1–1.2)
0.26
(<LOD–0.35)
1.2
(1.0–1.3)
3.8
(3.1–4.6)
5.5
(4.5–6.5)
5 (2016–2017) 524 86.8
(79.7–91.7)
0.96
(0.80–1.2)
<LOD 0.96
(0.83–1.1)
3.2
(2.6–3.8)
4.1
(2.9–5.3)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1165 92.1
(87.0–95.4)
1.3
(1.2–1.5)
Table footnote F 1.4
(1.2–1.6)
4.8
(4.1–5.4)
7.3
(5.2–9.5)
2 (2009–2011) 357 96.1
(89.8–98.6)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
0.32
(0.21–0.42)
1.3
(0.92–1.6)
4.6
(3.7–5.5)
Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 1040 91.1
(85.0–94.9)
1.1
(0.92–1.4)
0.29
(<LOD–0.39)
1.1
(0.81–1.3)
5.5
(3.9–7.0)
6.7
(5.1–8.3)
4 (2014–2015) 362 90.2
(82.7–94.7)
1.1
(0.93–1.4)
<LODTable 9.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.35)
1.2
(0.97–1.4)
5.6Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(3.3–7.8)
7.4
(5.1–9.7)
5 (2016–2017) 362 75.2
(56.4–87.7)
0.84Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(0.57–1.2)
<LOD 1.0
(0.74–1.4)
2.9
(1.9–4.0)
5.4Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(1.9–8.8)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1219 87.5
(82.5–91.2)
1.0
(0.96–1.1)
<LOD 1.2
(1.1–1.4)
4.4
(3.5–5.3)
6.6
(4.8–8.4)
2 (2009–2011) 360 92.7
(86.4–96.2)
1.2
(0.97–1.5)
0.25Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.37)
1.2
(0.98–1.4)
4.3Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(2.7–6.0)
6.7Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(2.6–11)
3 (2012–2013) 1075 93.1
(91.2–94.7)
1.1
(1.0–1.3)
0.30
(<LOD–0.36)
1.1
(0.94–1.2)
4.2
(3.1–5.3)
7.5Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(4.3–11)
4 (2014–2015) 311 92.5
(85.9–96.1)
0.86
(0.74–1.0)
0.28
(<LOD–0.38)
0.94
(0.77–1.1)
2.4
(1.9–2.9)
4.2Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(2.4–5.9)
5 (2016–2017) 348 82.4
(74.1–88.5)
0.73
(0.59–0.89)
<LOD 0.79
(0.61–0.96)
2.4
(1.9–3.0)
3.1
(2.6–3.7)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1081 88.1
(83.3–91.6)
0.90
(0.81–0.99)
<LOD 0.99
(0.87–1.1)
3.7
(3.3–4.2)
5.2
(3.8–6.6)
2 (2009–2011) 291 91.9
(86.5–95.2)
1.0
(0.84–1.3)
0.21Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.31)
0.99
(0.76–1.2)
4.4Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(2.5–6.2)
6.3
(4.4–8.1)
3 (2012–2013) 1038 88.4
(83.9–91.7)
0.88
(0.77–1.0)
<LOD 0.88
(0.76–1.0)
3.3
(2.8–3.7)
5.5
(4.2–6.7)
4 (2014–2015) 360 92.0
(87.5–95.0)
1.1
(0.96–1.2)
<LOD 1.0
(0.84–1.2)
4.2
(3.1–5.3)
5.5Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(2.3–8.7)
5 (2016–2017) 350 83.3
(77.1–88.1)
0.77
(0.66–0.90)
<LOD 0.79
(0.66–0.92)
2.7
(1.9–3.4)
3.7Table 9.1.1 footnote E
(2.3–5.1)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 0.2, 0.2, 0.23, 0.23, and 0.32 μg/L, respectively.

Table 9.1.2: Bisphenol A (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.1.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 9.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2550 93.8
(91.2–95.7)
1.2
(1.1–1.3)
0.39
(0.35–0.44)
1.0
(0.92–1.1)
4.1
(3.6–4.6)
6.9
(5.1–8.7)
3 (2012–2013) 5667 91.7
(90.1–93.1)
1.1
(1.0–1.2)
0.40
(0.36–0.45)
0.99
(0.94–1.0)
3.6
(3.0–4.2)
5.9
(4.4–7.5)
4 (2014–2015) 2559 91.9
(88.5–94.4)
0.93
(0.87–0.99)
0.32
(<LOD–0.36)
0.87
(0.80–0.94)
3.1
(2.6–3.5)
4.5
(3.9–5.2)
5 (2016–2017) 2620 81.5
(74.7–86.7)
0.79
(0.71–0.87)
<LOD 0.76
(0.65–0.86)
2.4
(1.8–2.9)
3.3
(2.8–3.8)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 9.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1277 93.3
(89.1–96.0)
1.1
(0.96–1.2)
0.36
(<LOD–0.48)
0.99
(0.93–1.1)
3.7
(2.7–4.8)
6.2Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(3.5–8.8)
3 (2012–2013) 2826 93.0
(90.9–94.6)
1.1
(0.96–1.2)
0.38
(0.32–0.45)
0.98
(0.90–1.1)
3.1
(2.8–3.4)
5.1
(3.9–6.4)
4 (2014–2015) 1272 94.6
(91.3–96.7)
0.92
(0.83–1.0)
0.30
(0.24–0.36)
0.87
(0.76–0.98)
2.8
(2.2–3.5)
4.1
(3.2–4.9)
5 (2016–2017) 1305 80.7
(72.1–87.0)
0.73
(0.64–0.83)
<LOD 0.70
(0.53–0.86)
2.4
(1.7–3.2)
3.2
(2.5–3.9)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 9.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1273 94.3
(91.8–96.1)
1.3
(1.2–1.5)
0.48
(0.40–0.57)
1.1
(0.95–1.3)
4.5
(3.5–5.5)
6.9
(4.5–9.4)
3 (2012–2013) 2841 90.5
(88.1–92.5)
1.2
(1.1–1.4)
0.42
(<LOD–0.46)
1.0
(0.91–1.1)
4.0
(3.1–5.0)
7.1Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(4.4–9.9)
4 (2014–2015) 1287 89.3
(82.8–93.5)
0.94
(0.85–1.0)
<LOD 0.88
(0.78–0.97)
3.4
(2.5–4.3)
5.0
(4.2–5.8)
5 (2016–2017) 1315 82.3
(74.7–88.0)
0.85
(0.77–0.95)
<LOD 0.80
(0.70–0.90)
2.2
(1.5–2.9)
3.4
(2.3–4.4)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 9.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 94.1
(89.3–96.8)
2.4
(1.9–3.1)
0.88Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–1.2)
2.0
(1.8–2.3)
10Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(4.6–15)
13
(8.6–17)
3 (2012–2013) 520 92.6
(82.9–97.0)
2.3
(1.8–2.9)
0.86Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–1.2)
2.1
(1.4–2.7)
5.9
(4.1–7.8)
8.4
(6.7–10)
4 (2014–2015) 511 91.3
(84.2–95.4)
2.0
(1.7–2.4)
0.64Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–0.90)
1.8
(1.5–2.2)
6.7
(4.7–8.7)
13Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(4.4–21)
5 (2016–2017) 538 86.2
(77.2–92.0)
1.6
(1.4–1.9)
<LOD 1.5
(1.2–1.8)
4.8
(3.7–5.9)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1028 93.5
(89.1–96.2)
2.0
(1.8–2.2)
0.68
(<LOD–0.82)
2.0
(1.8–2.1)
5.8
(4.8–6.9)
9.8
(7.4–12)
2 (2009–2011) 514 93.4
(88.9–96.2)
1.5
(1.2–1.9)
0.44Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–0.68)
1.4
(1.1–1.7)
Table footnote F 10Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(3.0–18)
3 (2012–2013) 1004 95.9
(94.6–96.9)
1.5
(1.3–1.7)
0.58
(0.46–0.69)
1.4
(1.1–1.6)
3.9
(2.6–5.2)
5.3Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.0–8.6)
4 (2014–2015) 510 94.4
(89.0–97.2)
1.2
(1.0–1.5)
0.41
(<LOD–0.54)
1.1
(0.94–1.3)
3.2
(2.6–3.8)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 507 88.6
(83.8–92.1)
1.1
(0.99–1.3)
<LOD 1.0
(0.90–1.1)
3.1
(2.3–3.8)
5.0Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.9–7.0)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 978 93.7
(90.2–96.0)
1.3
(1.2–1.4)
0.40
(0.30–0.50)
1.2
(0.99–1.4)
4.2
(3.3–5.0)
6.4Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(4.0–8.8)
2 (2009–2011) 510 94.4
(88.9–97.2)
1.0
(0.83–1.2)
0.30Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(0.17–0.43)
0.94
(0.79–1.1)
3.4Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(1.5–5.2)
5.0
(3.8–6.3)
3 (2012–2013) 991 92.3
(86.2–95.8)
1.0
(0.85–1.2)
0.35
(<LOD–0.44)
0.95
(0.82–1.1)
3.0
(2.3–3.8)
5.4Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.6–8.2)
4 (2014–2015) 505 93.7
(88.7–96.6)
0.83
(0.74–0.93)
0.30
(<LOD–0.35)
0.74
(0.61–0.87)
2.7
(2.1–3.3)
3.9
(2.6–5.1)
5 (2016–2017) 520 86.8
(79.7–91.7)
0.74
(0.58–0.94)
<LOD 0.66
(0.52–0.80)
2.0Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(0.79–3.3)
3.2Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.1–4.4)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1161 92.1
(87.0–95.4)
1.5
(1.4–1.6)
0.44
(<LOD–0.55)
1.4
(1.2–1.6)
4.4
(3.4–5.4)
6.8
(5.9–7.7)
2 (2009–2011) 355 96.1
(89.8–98.6)
1.1
(0.89–1.3)
0.39
(0.27–0.50)
0.99
(0.85–1.1)
2.8
(1.8–3.7)
Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 1040 91.1
(85.0–94.9)
1.0
(0.90–1.2)
0.36
(<LOD–0.43)
0.93
(0.80–1.1)
3.3
(2.6–3.9)
5.4Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.7–8.1)
4 (2014–2015) 362 90.2
(82.7–94.7)
0.91
(0.80–1.0)
<LOD 0.87
(0.75–0.99)
3.5Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(1.7–5.3)
4.6Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.0–7.1)
5 (2016–2017) 359 75.2
(56.4–87.7)
0.75
(0.60–0.94)
<LOD 0.84
(0.62–1.1)
2.4Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(1.5–3.3)
3.0
(2.0–4.1)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1214 87.5
(82.5–91.2)
1.3
(1.2–1.5)
<LOD 1.2
(1.0–1.4)
4.7
(3.8–5.7)
7.5
(6.1–8.8)
2 (2009–2011) 358 92.7
(86.4–96.2)
1.2
(0.99–1.4)
0.39
(<LOD–0.50)
1.1
(0.86–1.3)
4.2Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.3–6.2)
6.9Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(3.4–10)
3 (2012–2013) 1074 93.1
(91.2–94.7)
1.2
(1.1–1.3)
0.47
(<LOD–0.52)
0.99
(0.90–1.1)
3.8
(2.9–4.6)
6.1Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(3.7–8.5)
4 (2014–2015) 311 92.5
(85.9–96.1)
0.78
(0.70–0.86)
0.33
(<LOD–0.40)
0.71
(0.64–0.78)
1.9Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(0.95–2.9)
3.8Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.2–5.4)
5 (2016–2017) 347 82.4
(74.1–88.5)
0.66
(0.56–0.79)
<LOD 0.61
(0.53–0.69)
1.9Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(1.2–2.6)
2.8
(2.1–3.5)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1081 88.1
(83.3–91.6)
1.2
(1.1–1.4)
<LOD 1.1
(0.94–1.3)
4.3
(3.0–5.6)
7.6
(5.4–9.8)
2 (2009–2011) 290 91.9
(86.5–95.2)
1.2
(0.99–1.4)
0.29Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–0.45)
1.0
(0.89–1.1)
4.7
(3.3–6.0)
6.8Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.9–11)
3 (2012–2013) 1038 88.4
(83.9–91.7)
1.0
(0.97–1.1)
<LOD 0.99
(0.94–1.0)
3.0
(2.7–3.4)
4.7Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.7–6.7)
4 (2014–2015) 360 92.0
(87.5–95.0)
1.0
(0.92–1.2)
<LOD 0.99
(0.89–1.1)
3.5
(2.5–4.4)
4.8Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.1–7.4)
5 (2016–2017) 349 83.3
(77.1–88.1)
0.89
(0.80–0.99)
<LOD 0.84
(0.71–0.97)
2.2Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(0.85–3.5)
4.7Table 9.1.2 footnote E
(2.7–6.7)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

9.2 Parabens

Parabens are a group of para-hydroxybenzoic (p-hydroxybenzoic) acid esters, four of which were measured in cycle 3, cycle 4, and cycle 5 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS): methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl paraben.

Table 9.2.1: Parabens measured in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Paraben CASRN
Methyl paraben 99-76-3
Ethyl paraben 120-47-8
Propyl paraben 94-13-3
Butyl paraben 94-26-8

Parabens are widely used as preservatives in personal care products owing to their antibacterial and antifungal properties (Health Canada, 2019). These products include makeup, moisturizers, sunscreens, hair-care products, facial and skin cleansers, and shaving products. Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl paraben are the most common ones used in cosmetic products (FDA, 2018). Typical concentrations of parabens in cosmetic products are generally 0.5% or less (Health Canada, 2019). Methyl paraben and propyl paraben are permitted for use as food additives (preservatives) in foods sold in Canada. Parabens are also used in pharmaceutical drugs (Ye et al., 2008). Propyl paraben and butyl paraben are classified as active ingredients in natural health products as they are used medicinally as a source of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, a major metabolite of parabens (Health Canada, 2018).

Although parabens in commercial use are synthetically produced, some parabens may also occur naturally in certain fruits and vegetables, such as blueberries and carrots (Health Canada, 2019). Production and use of paraben-containing products can result in their release to the environment through various waste streams. A potential route of exposure for the general public is dermal contact with products that contain parabens, such as moisturizers and cosmetics. Approximately 50% of cosmetics in the United States contain parabens, with methylparaben being the most commonly used and lipstick having the highest concentrations (Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, 2008; Yazar et al., 2011). Oral exposure to parabens can also occur through consumption of foods or pharmaceuticals containing parabens, ingestion of breast milk, and ingestion of house dust (CDC, 2009; Fan et al., 2010; Ye et al., 2008).

Dermal exposure may result in small amounts of parabens being absorbed. Following oral exposure, parabens are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (NTP, 2005). Once absorbed, parabens are mainly hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid that can then be conjugated with glycine, glucuronide, and sulphate for excretion in urine (Soni et al., 2005). Currently, there is no evidence of bioaccumulation potential in humans. In laboratory animals, complete elimination of orally ingested ethyl and propyl paraben was observed within 72 hours (Soni et al., 2005). Data are limited in humans. One study of premature infants who received intramuscular injections of paraben-containing gentamicin observed that excretion of methyl paraben, primarily in the conjugated form, was variable (approximately 10% to 90%), possibly due to factors such as variation in intramuscular absorption and gestational and postpartum ages (Hindmarsh et al., 1983). A study of parabens in the urine of 100 adults found that parabens in urine appear predominantly in their conjugated forms (Ye et al., 2006). The concentration of parabens in urine (conjugated and free) can be used as a biomarker of exposure to parabens. As p-hydroxybenzoic acid is a nonspecific metabolite of all parabens, it may not be an optimal biomarker of exposure for specific parabens.

Health effects have not been observed as a result of exposures to parabens at concentrations found in cosmetics, with acute, subchronic and chronic experimental animal studies demonstrating a low order of toxicity of parabens (Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, 2008). It should be noted that most of the available toxicity data are from single paraben exposure studies, and that the additive and cumulative risks of exposures to multiple parabens are not well studied (Karpuzoglu et al., 2013). Animal studies have found parabens to be non-allergenic; however, sporadic human cases of anaphylactic reactions have been reported following paraben exposure. Parabens have been found to weakly mimic estrogens in vitro, but well-conducted animal studies do not demonstrate estrogenic effects (Sivaraman et al., 2018); human data do not support a link to estrogenic effects because exposure to parabens has not been observed to affect hormone levels or sperm quality (Adoamnei et al., 2018; Meeker et al., 2011). Parabens have not been found to be carcinogenic in chronic animal studies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated parabens with respect to human carcinogenicity.

Methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl paraben have been identified as priorities for risk assessment based on human health concerns under the Chemicals Management Plan Identification of Risk Assessment Priorities (IRAP) initiative (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2015). A screening-level risk assessment is currently under way to determine whether parabens present or may present a risk to the environment or human health as per the criteria set out in section 64 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (Canada, 1999; Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2019). As part of this assessment, Health Canada will present currently available evidence on the use of these parabens in each of the various products regulated by Health Canada as well as the results of its risk assessment. Health Canada continues to monitor and review any new scientific data on parabens (Health Canada, 2019).

Parabens were measured in a 2011 biomonitoring study carried out in Alberta with 39 participants aged 12–67 years who were patients at a primary care clinic specializing in environmental health sciences (Genuis et al., 2013). The 50th percentile urinary concentrations measured in this study were 25.95, 10.30, 2.80, and 0.32 µg/L for methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl paraben, respectively.

Methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl paraben were analyzed in the urine of CHMS participants aged 3–79 years in cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data are presented as µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable quantity of parabens in urine is an indicator of exposure to parabens and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 9.2.2: Methyl paraben — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.2.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2339 91.0
(87.4–93.7)
21
(17–25)
<LODTable 9.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–1.8)
19
(16–23)
320Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(200–450)
470Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(210–730)
4 (2014–2015) 2564 89.6
(85.4–92.7)
17
(13–22)
<LOD 15
(9.8–20)
270
(190–340)
490
(340–640)
5 (2016–2017) 2720 87.9
(84.2–90.8)
14
(11–18)
<LOD 11
(7.3–15)
230Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(100–350)
550Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(260–830)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1171 85.1
(78.3–90.0)
9.6
(7.2–13)
<LOD 5.9Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(3.5–8.3)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 1275 85.5
(78.2–90.7)
9.4
(6.9–13)
<LOD 6.8Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(4.2–9.4)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1356 84.4
(79.8–88.2)
7.2
(5.8–8.9)
<LOD 5.0
(3.9–6.1)
110
(73–140)
190Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(78–290)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1168 97.1
(95.2–98.3)
45
(33–63)
3.7
(2.4–4.9)
53Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(21–85)
410
(330–480)
480Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(220–740)
4 (2014–2015) 1289 93.7
(91.4–95.4)
30
(21–43)
1.8
(1.3–2.4)
Table footnote F 310Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(170–440)
510Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(170–850)
5 (2016–2017) 1364 91.4
(87.7–94.0)
28
(19–39)
1.6Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–2.3)
26Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(8.4–43)
480Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(210–750)
860Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(510–1200)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 463 91.7
(86.8–94.8)
20Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(14–28)
1.5Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–2.2)
16
(11–21)
270Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(85–450)
660Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(340–980)
4 (2014–2015) 511 94.3
(91.4–96.3)
12
(9.3–15)
1.9Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–2.7)
8.0
(5.9–10)
110Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(50–170)
330Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(110–560)
5 (2016–2017) 552 88.9
(81.9–93.4)
9.9Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(6.8–14)
<LOD 6.9
(4.4–9.4)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 481 87.9
(82.5–91.8)
7.7
(5.7–10)
<LOD 6.0
(4.4–7.7)
80Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(30–130)
150Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(55–240)
4 (2014–2015) 514 91.9
(89.5–93.8)
7.6
(6.4–9.1)
1.4
(<LOD–1.8)
6.1
(4.0–8.2)
43
(30–57)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 540 88.4
(84.2–91.6)
7.5
(5.6–9.9)
<LOD 4.9
(3.8–6.0)
140Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(62–230)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 469 93.7
(89.3–96.4)
15Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(10–22)
1.5Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–2.3)
10Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(3.1–18)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 505 89.4
(84.3–92.9)
14Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(9.1–21)
<LOD 9.7
(6.4–13)
300Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(130–470)
520Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(250–780)
5 (2016–2017) 538 87.5
(82.6–91.2)
9.5
(6.7–13)
<LOD Table footnote F 130
(100–160)
280Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(150–400)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 328 91.3
(77.9–96.9)
21Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(13–34)
Table footnote F 21Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(6.4–36)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 362 90.8
(82.9–95.3)
16Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(9.3–28)
1.3Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–1.9)
Table footnote F 300Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(170–430)
390Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(180–610)
5 (2016–2017) 376 85.6
(75.8–91.9)
15Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(9.8–22)
<LOD 16Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(7.0–24)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 284 90.3
(79.6–95.7)
25Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(14–43)
1.3Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–2.1)
26Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(8.0–44)
400Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(180–620)
430Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(190–670)
4 (2014–2015) 312 86.3
(77.7–91.9)
21Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(11–38)
<LOD Table footnote F 270Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(93–440)
550Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(250–860)
5 (2016–2017) 360 89.8
(83.1–94.0)
14Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(9.6–21)
<LOD 12Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(5.0–18)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 314 91.6
(84.7–95.5)
25Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(16–37)
1.7Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–2.7)
30Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(8.1–51)
360
(230–480)
460
(330–600)
4 (2014–2015) 360 91.6
(87.3–94.5)
20
(16–26)
1.4Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–2.0)
22Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(8.2–36)
Table footnote F 680Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(210–1200)
5 (2016–2017) 354 88.4
(79.3–93.8)
20
(15–28)
<LOD 17Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(9.9–24)
430Table 9.2.2 footnote E
(190–660)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycles 3, 4, and 5 is 1.3 μg/L.

Table 9.2.3: Methyl paraben (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.2.3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2338 91.0
(87.4–93.7)
21
(18–26)
<LOD 23
(15–31)
320Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(190–450)
620
(410–840)
4 (2014–2015) 2563 89.6
(85.4–92.7)
15
(11–21)
<LOD 13Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(6.5–19)
230
(180–290)
340
(230–440)
5 (2016–2017) 2688 87.9
(84.2–90.8)
14
(11–18)
<LOD 9.6
(6.5–13)
250Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(150–360)
500Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(300–710)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1171 85.1
(78.3–90.0)
8.1
(6.2–11)
<LOD 5.9
(3.9–7.9)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 1274 85.5
(78.2–90.7)
7.4
(5.4–10)
<LOD 5.3Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(3.3–7.2)
99Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–150)
230Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(130–340)
5 (2016–2017) 1341 84.4
(79.8–88.2)
6.2
(5.1–7.6)
<LOD 4.0
(2.9–5.1)
110
(81–130)
200
(140–250)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1167 97.1
(95.2–98.3)
58
(43–79)
4.5Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(2.8–6.2)
60Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(28–93)
460Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(200–710)
760
(630–890)
4 (2014–2015) 1289 93.7
(91.4–95.4)
31Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(21–46)
2.1
(1.5–2.7)
37Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(17–56)
290Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(180–400)
480Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(250–700)
5 (2016–2017) 1347 91.4
(87.7–94.0)
30
(21–43)
2.0
(<LOD–2.6)
33Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(15–51)
470Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(290–640)
780Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(470–1100)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 462 91.7
(86.8–94.8)
38Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(25–58)
3.9Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–6.2)
27Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(16–38)
540Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(180–910)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 511 94.3
(91.4–96.3)
21
(16–27)
3.7
(<LOD–4.6)
13Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(8.2–19)
210Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(72–360)
430Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(200–660)
5 (2016–2017) 542 88.9
(81.9–93.4)
17Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(11–26)
<LOD 13Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(7.2–18)
260Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(86–430)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 481 87.9
(82.5–91.8)
9.8
(6.9–14)
<LOD 7.5
(4.9–10)
Table footnote F 250Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(98–390)
4 (2014–2015) 513 91.9
(89.5–93.8)
8.4
(7.1–9.8)
1.8
(<LOD–2.2)
7.1
(5.3–8.8)
41
(30–52)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 531 88.4
(84.2–91.6)
8.7
(6.6–11)
<LOD 5.3
(4.0–6.6)
160Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(49–280)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 469 93.7
(89.3–96.4)
11
(8.0–16)
0.97
(<LOD–1.2)
9.7Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(5.7–14)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 505 89.4
(84.3–92.9)
9.9Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(6.7–15)
<LOD 7.2
(4.9–9.5)
180Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(66–290)
370Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(100–640)
5 (2016–2017) 531 87.5
(82.6–91.2)
7.2
(5.4–9.6)
<LOD 4.9Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(2.4–7.4)
110Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(50–180)
190Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(120–270)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 328 91.3
(77.9–96.9)
17Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(12–25)
<LOD 18Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(6.0–30)
320Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–530)
630Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(340–920)
4 (2014–2015) 362 90.8
(82.9–95.3)
13Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(6.9–25)
0.90Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–1.4)
Table footnote F 230
(150–310)
280Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(94–460)
5 (2016–2017) 372 85.6
(75.8–91.9)
13Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(8.7–20)
<LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 284 90.3
(79.6–95.7)
29Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(17–49)
Table footnote F 34Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(14–55)
390Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(140–630)
610Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(230–990)
4 (2014–2015) 312 86.3
(77.7–91.9)
19Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(10–35)
<LOD Table footnote F 250Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(140–370)
310Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(130–490)
5 (2016–2017) 359 89.8
(83.1–94.0)
13Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(8.7–20)
<LOD Table footnote F 230Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–370)
470Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–690)
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 314 91.6
(84.7–95.5)
28Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(19–41)
1.6Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–2.5)
36Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(13–59)
340Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(98–590)
710Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(310–1100)
4 (2014–2015) 360 91.6
(87.3–94.5)
20
(16–23)
1.2Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–1.7)
22Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(13–31)
320Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–510)
620Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(340–890)
5 (2016–2017) 353 88.4
(79.3–93.8)
23
(17–31)
<LOD 20Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(13–28)
Table footnote F 790Table 9.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–1100)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 9.2.4: Ethyl paraben — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.2.4 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2339 41.9
(38.8–45.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 2564 42.1
(36.7–47.6)
<LOD <LOD 27Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(14–39)
73Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(33–110)
5 (2016–2017) 2720 39.6
(34.6–44.9)
<LOD <LOD 17
(11–23)
65Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(38–93)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1171 30.8
(24.3–38.0)
<LOD <LOD 6.9Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(2.9–11)
14Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(6.2–22)
4 (2014–2015) 1275 32.5
(28.4–36.9)
<LOD <LOD 11
(6.9–14)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1356 29.8
(22.7–38.1)
<LOD <LOD 6.5Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(2.2–11)
Table footnote F
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1168 53.3
(48.3–58.2)
<LOD <LOD 49Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(16–83)
120Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(53–190)
4 (2014–2015) 1289 51.7
(43.9–59.4)
<LOD <LOD 39Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(14–64)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1364 49.3
(43.3–55.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 463 30.6
(21.3–41.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 511 32.3
(24.8–40.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 552 35.8
(27.3–45.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 481 20.5Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(13.2–30.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 6.8Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(2.2–11)
4 (2014–2015) 514 21.2Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(14.2–30.6)
<LOD <LOD 2.0Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(1.1–2.9)
3.4Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(1.3–5.5)
5 (2016–2017) 540 26.3
(20.2–33.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 469 29.8
(21.8–39.2)
<LOD <LOD 11Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(3.8–18)
20Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(8.3–32)
4 (2014–2015) 505 29.6
(22.2–38.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 28Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(11–45)
5 (2016–2017) 538 28.2
(22.6–34.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 328 44.6
(35.6–54.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 362 44.5
(35.3–54.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 376 43.4
(33.4–53.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 284 46.4
(38.8–54.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 312 49.6
(38.2–61.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 98Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(44–150)
5 (2016–2017) 360 34.6
(29.8–39.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 314 46.5
(38.2–55.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 73Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(33–110)
4 (2014–2015) 360 41.7
(36.7–47.0)
<LOD <LOD 38Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(22–55)
78Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(44–110)
5 (2016–2017) 354 51.7
(43.7–59.7)
<LOD Table footnote F 57Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(16–98)
160Table 9.2.4 footnote E
(46–270)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycles 3, 4, and 5 is 0.90 μg/L.

Table 9.2.5: Ethyl paraben (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.2.5 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2338 41.9
(38.8–45.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 72Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(23–120)
4 (2014–2015) 2563 42.1
(36.7–47.6)
<LOD <LOD 25Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(8.9–42)
59Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(23–95)
5 (2016–2017) 2688 39.6
(34.6–44.9)
<LOD <LOD 18Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(5.0–31)
54Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(17–91)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1171 30.8
(24.3–38.0)
<LOD <LOD 5.1Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(3.0–7.2)
8.7Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(3.5–14)
4 (2014–2015) 1274 32.5
(28.4–36.9)
<LOD <LOD 6.5
(4.4–8.6)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1341 29.8
(22.7–38.1)
<LOD <LOD 5.9Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(3.0–8.7)
Table footnote F
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1167 53.3
(48.3–58.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 130Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(68–180)
4 (2014–2015) 1289 51.7
(43.9–59.4)
<LOD <LOD 54Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(22–86)
120Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(54–190)
5 (2016–2017) 1347 49.3
(43.3–55.4)
<LOD <LOD 36Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(11–61)
140Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(80–200)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 462 30.6
(21.3–41.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 511 32.3
(24.8–40.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 542 35.8
(27.3–45.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 481 20.5Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(13.2–30.5)
<LOD <LOD 3.3Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(<LOD–5.0)
6.3Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(3.2–9.3)
4 (2014–2015) 513 21.2Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(14.2–30.6)
<LOD <LOD 2.0Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(1.2–2.8)
4.6Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(2.2–7.1)
5 (2016–2017) 531 26.3
(20.2–33.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 469 29.8
(21.8–39.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 505 29.6
(22.2–38.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 531 28.2
(22.6–34.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 27Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(<LOD–46)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 328 44.6
(35.6–54.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 362 44.5
(35.3–54.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 372 43.4
(33.4–53.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 32Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(<LOD–48)
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 284 46.4
(38.8–54.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 312 49.6
(38.2–61.1)
<LOD <LOD 41Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(<LOD–70)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 359 34.6
(29.8–39.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 314 46.5
(38.2–55.1)
<LOD <LOD 39Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(<LOD–63)
80
(52–110)
4 (2014–2015) 360 41.7
(36.7–47.0)
<LOD <LOD 44Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(26–62)
70Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(29–110)
5 (2016–2017) 353 51.7
(43.7–59.7)
<LOD 1.6
(<LOD–2.0)
78Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(36–120)
180Table 9.2.5 footnote E
(69–290)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 9.2.6: Propyl paraben — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)

Cycle
n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.2.6 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2339 79.2
(74.9–83.0)
2.9
(2.4–3.6)
<LOD 2.4
(1.8–3.0)
78Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(47–110)
110Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(38–190)
4 (2014–2015) 2564 78.7
(72.9–83.5)
2.5
(1.8–3.5)
<LOD 2.0Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.2–2.7)
59Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(34–85)
130Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(67–180)
5 (2016–2017) 2720 73.7
(67.4–79.1)
1.9
(1.4–2.4)
<LOD 1.1
(0.74–1.4)
65Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(39–91)
140
(92–180)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1171 68.4
(60.5–75.4)
1.3
(0.94–1.8)
<LOD 0.84
(0.55–1.1)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 1275 71.7
(65.2–77.4)
1.3
(0.96–1.8)
<LOD 0.77
(0.55–0.99)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1356 64.2
(55.5–72.0)
0.78
(0.63–0.97)
<LOD 0.46Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.64)
Table footnote F 32Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(15–49)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1168 90.3
(85.9–93.5)
6.7Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(4.2–10)
<LOD Table footnote F 100
(71–130)
150Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(47–250)
4 (2014–2015) 1289 85.7
(79.0–90.5)
4.9Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(3.2–7.6)
<LOD 5.6Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.9–9.4)
83Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(38–130)
170Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(58–280)
5 (2016–2017) 1364 83.1
(76.2–88.4)
4.4
(3.1–6.2)
<LOD 4.4Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(2.8–6.0)
110Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(65–150)
160
(110–210)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 463 76.3
(67.5–83.3)
1.7Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.1–2.6)
<LOD 1.3Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(0.64–2.0)
28Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(10–47)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 511 81.9
(76.4–86.3)
1.5
(1.1–2.0)
<LOD 1.2Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(0.67–1.7)
16Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(7.3–24)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 552 70.7
(59.7–79.8)
1.2Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(0.77–1.8)
<LOD 0.87Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(0.47–1.3)
Table footnote F 34Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(10–58)
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 481 71.7
(62.9–79.2)
0.99
(0.70–1.4)
<LOD 0.71Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(<LOD–1.2)
9.1Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(2.9–15)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 514 81.1
(76.5–84.9)
1.2
(0.99–1.6)
<LOD 0.95Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(0.58–1.3)
11
(7.8–14)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 540 70.3
(62.1–77.4)
0.96
(0.69–1.3)
<LOD 0.69
(0.48–0.90)
14Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(6.7–21)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 469 82.3
(71.3–89.7)
2.5Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.4–4.4)
<LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F 250Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(84–420)
4 (2014–2015) 505 81.3
(73.7–87.1)
2.3Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.6–3.3)
<LOD 1.8Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.1–2.4)
55Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(17–92)
110Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(56–170)
5 (2016–2017) 538 70.1
(63.1–76.2)
1.4
(1.1–1.7)
<LOD 0.97
(0.67–1.3)
Table footnote F 89Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(36–140)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 328 84.9
(78.9–89.5)
3.9
(2.7–5.6)
<LOD 2.7Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.0–4.4)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 362 78.7
(65.3–88.0)
Table footnote F <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 376 75.5
(67.5–82.0)
2.1Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.4–3.0)
<LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F 140Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(54–230)
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 284 76.6
(65.9–84.7)
2.8
(2.1–3.9)
<LOD 2.5Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.4–3.7)
75Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(23–130)
100
(73–140)
4 (2014–2015) 312 79.6
(66.9–88.3)
Table footnote F <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 360 77.0
(65.3–85.6)
2.0Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(1.3–2.9)
<LOD 0.98Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(<LOD–1.7)
71Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(31–110)
150Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(63–240)
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 314 78.5
(70.5–84.8)
3.7Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(2.5–5.6)
<LOD Table footnote F 79Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(42–120)
110
(74–140)
4 (2014–2015) 360 74.5
(64.3–82.6)
3.0Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(2.0–4.6)
<LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 354 69.5
(59.3–78.1)
2.3
(1.6–3.1)
<LOD 1.4Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(0.55–2.2)
100Table 9.2.6 footnote E
(60–150)
150
(120–180)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycles 3, 4, and 5 is 0.30 μg/L.

Table 9.2.7: Propyl paraben (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.2.7 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2338 79.2
(74.9–83.0)
3.0
(2.5–3.7)
<LOD 2.1
(1.4–2.7)
85Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(53–120)
130
(96–160)
4 (2014–2015) 2563 78.7
(72.9–83.5)
2.3Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(1.6–3.3)
<LOD 1.5Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(0.85–2.1)
63Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(30–96)
110
(73–140)
5 (2016–2017) 2688 73.7
(67.4–79.1)
1.8
(1.4–2.3)
<LOD 0.97
(0.70–1.2)
66
(49–82)
120
(88–150)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1171 68.4
(60.5–75.4)
1.1
(0.81–1.5)
<LOD 0.75
(0.49–1.0)
30Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(<LOD–52)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 1274 71.7
(65.2–77.4)
1.0
(0.74–1.4)
<LOD 0.70
(0.46–0.93)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1341 64.2
(55.5–72.0)
0.68
(0.56–0.82)
<LOD 0.46
(<LOD–0.55)
Table footnote F 42Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(18–66)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1167 90.3
(85.9–93.5)
8.6Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(5.6–13)
<LOD Table footnote F 120
(86–150)
190Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(94–280)
4 (2014–2015) 1289 85.7
(79.0–90.5)
5.1Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(3.0–8.5)
<LOD Table footnote F 87Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(51–120)
160Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(91–230)
5 (2016–2017) 1347 83.1
(76.2–88.4)
4.8
(3.4–6.7)
<LOD 4.5Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(1.6–7.4)
110
(75–140)
150
(120–190)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 462 76.3
(67.5–83.3)
3.3Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(2.1–5.2)
<LOD 2.2Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(1.3–3.1)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 511 81.9
(76.4–86.3)
2.6
(2.0–3.4)
<LOD 1.8Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(1.0–2.6)
30Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(17–43)
68Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(20–120)
5 (2016–2017) 542 70.7
(59.7–79.8)
2.0Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(1.3–3.0)
<LOD 1.3Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(0.59–2.1)
24Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(<LOD–39)
53Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(15–92)
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 481 71.7
(62.9–79.2)
1.3Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(0.85–1.8)
<LOD 0.87Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(<LOD–1.3)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 513 81.1
(76.5–84.9)
1.4
(1.1–1.7)
<LOD 1.1
(0.74–1.4)
9.1
(6.4–12)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 531 70.3
(62.1–77.4)
1.1
(0.82–1.5)
<LOD 0.85
(0.54–1.2)
14Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(4.9–23)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 469 82.3
(71.3–89.7)
1.9Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(1.1–3.2)
<LOD 1.1Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(0.51–1.7)
Table footnote F 140Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(87–200)
4 (2014–2015) 505 81.3
(73.7–87.1)
1.7
(1.2–2.4)
<LOD 1.1Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(0.64–1.6)
Table footnote F 85Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(42–130)
5 (2016–2017) 531 70.1
(63.1–76.2)
1.0
(0.81–1.3)
<LOD 0.64
(0.44–0.83)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 328 84.9
(78.9–89.5)
3.1
(2.3–4.1)
<LOD 1.8Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(0.59–3.0)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 362 78.7
(65.3–88.0)
Table footnote F <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 372 75.5
(67.5–82.0)
1.9
(1.3–2.7)
<LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F 130Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(60–190)
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 284 76.6
(65.9–84.7)
3.3
(2.4–4.5)
<LOD 2.6Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(1.2–3.9)
94Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(45–140)
120
(83–160)
4 (2014–2015) 312 79.6
(66.9–88.3)
Table footnote F <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F 96Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(29–160)
5 (2016–2017) 359 77.0
(65.3–85.6)
1.8Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(1.2–2.7)
<LOD 0.95Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(<LOD–1.4)
75
(50–100)
120
(83–150)
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 314 78.5
(70.5–84.8)
4.3Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(2.7–6.8)
<LOD Table footnote F 94Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(51–140)
130Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(54–210)
4 (2014–2015) 360 74.5
(64.3–82.6)
2.9Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(2.0–4.2)
<LOD 2.6Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(0.95–4.2)
Table footnote F 190Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(110–280)
5 (2016–2017) 353 69.5
(59.3–78.1)
2.6
(2.0–3.3)
<LOD 1.7Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(0.85–2.5)
98Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(58–140)
190Table 9.2.7 footnote E
(85–300)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 9.2.8: Butyl paraben — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.2.8 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2339 24.6
(20.2–29.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 2564 19.4
(15.7–23.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 4.3Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(2.0–6.6)
5 (2016–2017) 2720 13.1
(10.6–16.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.70Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(<LOD–1.1)
Table footnote F
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1171 12.2Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(7.8–18.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 1275 11.4Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(7.4–17.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1356 5.1Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(3.1–8.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1168 37.4
(31.3–44.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 1289 27.5
(22.2–33.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1364 20.9
(16.8–25.8)
<LOD <LOD 1.4Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(0.63–2.2)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 463 17.0Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(10.9–25.6)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 511 15.7Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(10.7–22.3)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 552 8.4Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(4.7–14.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 481 11.8Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(6.6–20.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.68Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(0.33–1.0)
4 (2014–2015) 514 10.8Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(7.1–16.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 1.1Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(0.30–1.8)
5 (2016–2017) 540 7.2Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(3.8–13.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 469 23.7Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(16.0–33.5)
<LOD <LOD 2.5Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(0.85–4.2)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 505 19.7
(14.3–26.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 538 9.8
(7.3–13.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 328 28.3
(21.3–36.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 362 17.5Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(11.2–26.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 376 13.0Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(6.9–23.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 284 26.4
(18.7–35.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 312 21.2Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(12.5–33.6)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 360 15.5
(11.0–21.4)
<LOD <LOD 1.3Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(0.53–2.1)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 314 23.7
(16.5–32.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 360 23.1
(17.3–30.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 6.8
(4.4–9.1)
5 (2016–2017) 354 13.8
(10.4–18.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.65Table 9.2.8 footnote E
(<LOD–1.1)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycles 3, 4, and 5 is 0.30 μg/L.

Table 9.2.9: Butyl paraben (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 9.2.9 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2338 24.6
(20.2–29.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 16Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(4.6–27)
4 (2014–2015) 2563 19.4
(15.7–23.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 4.2Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(1.5–6.8)
5 (2016–2017) 2688 13.1
(10.6–16.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.87
(<LOD–1.2)
2.2Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(0.88–3.6)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1171 12.2Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(7.8–18.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.52Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–0.84)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 1274 11.4Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(7.4–17.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.79Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–1.2)
5 (2016–2017) 1341 5.1Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(3.1–8.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.79Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–1.3)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1167 37.4
(31.3–44.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 29Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–49)
4 (2014–2015) 1289 27.5
(22.2–33.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 9.2Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–15)
5 (2016–2017) 1347 20.9
(16.8–25.8)
<LOD <LOD 1.6Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(0.90–2.4)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 462 17.0Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(10.9–25.6)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 511 15.7Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(10.7–22.3)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 3.1Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–5.1)
5 (2016–2017) 542 8.4Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(4.7–14.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 1.3Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–1.8)
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 481 11.8Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(6.6–20.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.73Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–1.0)
0.99
(0.74–1.2)
4 (2014–2015) 513 10.8Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(7.1–16.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.81Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(0.30–1.3)
5 (2016–2017) 531 7.2Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(3.8–13.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 469 23.7Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(16.0–33.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 505 19.7
(14.3–26.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 531 9.8
(7.3–13.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 328 28.3
(21.3–36.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 362 17.5Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(11.2–26.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 372 13.0Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(6.9–23.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 284 26.4
(18.7–35.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 312 21.2Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(12.5–33.6)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 359 15.5
(11.0–21.4)
<LOD <LOD 1.6Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(0.62–2.5)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 314 23.7
(16.5–32.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 360 23.1
(17.3–30.1)
<LOD <LOD 4.2Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–6.5)
6.7Table 9.2.9 footnote E
(2.1–11)
5 (2016–2017) 353 13.8
(10.4–18.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.87
(<LOD–1.0)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

10 Summary and results for nicotine

10.1 Nicotine

Cotinine (CASRN 486-56-6) is the major primary metabolite of nicotine, a chemical found naturally in the tobacco plant and present in tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco products (e.g., chewing tobacco and snuff) (Benowitz and Jacob, 1994). Nicotine is also incorporated into nicotine delivery products, such as nicotine gum, patches, lozenges, inhalers, buccal sprays, and vaping products (Etter et al, 2011).

Human exposure to nicotine occurs primarily through the use of tobacco, vaping, and other nicotine delivery products, and from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (HSDB, 2009). In addition, infants breastfed by women who smoke may be exposed to nicotine in breast milk (HSDB, 2009).

Inhalation is the most effective intake route; on average, 60% to 80% of nicotine is absorbed through the lungs (Iwase et al., 1991). Nicotine absorption through the mouth varies with the pH of the smoke or nicotine delivery product, increasing as alkalinity rises (Benowitz et al., 2009). Nicotine can also be absorbed through the skin and gastrointestinal tract, but at a much lower efficiency compared with inhalation (Karaconji, 2005). Once inside the body, approximately 70% to 80% of nicotine is metabolized into cotinine, primarily by a liver cytochrome P-450 enzyme. It has a half-life of 10 to 20 hours and can remain in the body at detectable levels for up to seven days (Benowitz and Jacob, 1994; Curvall et al., 1990; Hecht et al., 1999). Cotinine is considered to be the most relevant biomarker for exposure to tobacco products and tobacco smoke (Brown et al., 2005; CDC, 2009; Seaton and Vesell, 1993). It has also been shown to be a biomarker of exposure to nicotine via other types of nicotine delivery products, such as e-cigarettes (Schick et al., 2017; Vélez de Mendizábal et al., 2015). It should be noted that there are no validated biomarkers that can differentiate among the use of various combustible products (e.g., cigars, cigarillos, water pipes, and cigarettes), and there are no validated biomarkers that are specific to nicotine-containing or nicotine-free vaping products (Schick et al., 2017).

Nicotine reaches the brain rapidly following inhalation and can cause several reactions in the body, such as: increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle relaxation, altered brain activity, and constriction of blood vessels leading to a drop in temperature of the hands and feet (Health Canada, 2013). Other effects may include nausea, weakness, stomach cramps, and headache, with symptoms lessening as nicotine tolerance is developed. Nicotine mimics the effects of acetylcholine in the nervous system. Through the release of dopamine and effects on other neurotransmitters, it can activate areas of the brain that are associated with feelings of alertness, calmness, and pleasure (Pandey et al., 2018). As the body builds tolerance to nicotine, the delivery product must continue to be used for the effects to last; use over time may lead to dependence and addiction (Health Canada, 2013). The use of nicotine-containing products is associated with exposure to other chemicals that have their own effects. For example, tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 chemicals, including at least 70 that cause, initiate, or promote cancer, and others that contribute to adverse health effects, such as emphysema, heart disease, and increased risk of asthma (CDC, 2004; Health Canada, 2011; IARC, 2004). Levels of cotinine in the blood and urine of non-smokers have been correlated with some adverse health effects related to environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine itself may contribute to the neuropharmacological effects of tobacco smoking (Benowitz, 1996; Crooks and Dwoskin, 1997).

As a result of the adverse health effects associated with tobacco use, the Government of Canada, along with provincial and territorial governments and various municipalities, has taken several steps to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use as well as exposure to tobacco smoke. These steps include prohibitions on the sales of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems to youth, requirements to apply health warnings on tobacco packaging, and restrictions on the promotion of tobacco products, including the display of tobacco products at retail outlets (Health Canada, 2006). Additional steps include the offer of cessation help along with initiatives to eliminate smoking in workplaces and enclosed public locations (Health Canada, 2006). In 2018, Health Canada enacted the Tobacco and Vaping Products Act, which amends the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act to allow the effective regulation of vaping products as well as the ability to establish plain and standardized appearance requirements for tobacco product packages (Health Canada, 2018). This legislation aims to protect young people and non-smokers from inducements to nicotine addiction and tobacco use, and to enhance public awareness of the health and safety hazards posed by tobacco and vaping products.

The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative (FNBI) was a nationally representative biomonitoring study of adult First Nations peoples living on reserves south of the 60° parallel (AFN, 2013). It comprised 13 randomly selected First Nations communities in Canada with 503 First Nations participants aged 20 years and older. In 2011, the 50th percentile concentrations of cotinine in urine from smokers and non-smokers were 315.79 µg/L and <1.1 µg/L, respectively.

Data from cycle 1 (2007–2009) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) demonstrated that a substantial proportion of the Canadian population is exposed to secondhand smoke. The study found detectable cotinine levels (≥1.1 ng/ml) in non-smokers, indicating secondhand smoke exposure, and reported that children and adolescent subpopulations had higher levels compared with adults (Wong et al., 2013). A study of occupationally exposed non-smoking bar workers in the Toronto area examined the effects of a 2004 smoke-free workplace bylaw; the study showed a one-month post-ban decline in the geometric mean of urinary cotinine, from 10.3 µg/L to 3.10 µg/L (Repace et al., 2013). A concentration of 50 µg/L urine for cotinine is recommended for determining smoking status; greater concentrations are attributed to smokers (SRNT Subcommittee on Biochemical Verification, 2002). Using this concentration, a study assessed the validity of self-reported cigarette smoking status among Canadians using urinary cotinine data from cycle 1 (2007–2009) of the CHMS (Wong et al., 2012). Compared with estimates based on urinary cotinine concentration, smoking prevalence based on self-reporting was only 0.3 percentage points lower. This indicates that accurate estimates of the prevalence of cigarette smoking among Canadians can be derived from self-reported smoking status data.

Cotinine was analyzed in the urine of all CHMS participants aged 6–79 years in cycle 1 (2007–2009), and 3–79 years in cycle 2 (2009–2011), cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data from these cycles are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine for non-smokers and smokers. Survey participants aged 3–11 years were assumed to be non-smokers. In this survey, a smoker is defined as someone who is a current daily or occasional smoker; a non-smoker is defined as someone who does not currently smoke, and has either never smoked or was previously a daily or occasional smoker. Finding a measurable amount of cotinine in urine is an indicator of exposure to nicotine.

In addition to free cotinine, nicotine and several other metabolites (cotinine-N-glucuronide, nicotine-N-glucuronide, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine-O-glucuronide, and anabasine) were analyzed in cycle 1 (2007–2009) and cycle 3 (2012–2013) of the CHMS. Free and total 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of a tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine found only in tobacco and products derived from tobacco, were also analyzed in cycle 1 (2007–2009) and cycle 3 (2012–2013) of the CHMS. Data on these tobacco chemicals and their metabolites are available from Statistics Canada through the Research Data Centres Program.

Table 10.1.1: Cotinine (non-smokers) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 10.1.1 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 10.1.1 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 5468 14.3
(11.5–17.7)
<LOD <LOD 2.6Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–4.4)
Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 4978 9.3
(6.9–12.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 4907 11.3
(9.2–13.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 4928 9.8
(7.2–13.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
Males, 3-79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 10.1.1 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2594 17.9
(14.3–22.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 2444 11.0
(7.6–15.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 2446 12.0
(9.6–14.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 2440 12.6Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(8.1–19.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
Females, 3-79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 10.1.1 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2874 10.9
(8.6–13.7)
<LOD <LOD 1.5Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–2.5)
Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 2534 7.9
(5.7–10.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 2461 10.6
(7.6–14.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 2488 7.2
(5.6–9.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 1.7Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(<LOD–2.7)
3-5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 10.1.1 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 573 17.3Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(9.2–30.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 522 10.5Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(6.7–16.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 512 16.7Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(11.2–24.2)
<LOD <LOD 2.3
(1.7–3.0)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 543 9.6Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(5.7–15.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
6-11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1045 15.9
(12.6–19.8)
<LOD <LOD 3.9Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(1.9–5.8)
10Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(5.7–14)
2 (2009–2011) 1061 16.9
(12.4–22.8)
<LOD <LOD 4.9Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(1.9–7.9)
12Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(6.3–18)
3 (2012–2013) 1007 10.5
(7.3–14.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 7.1Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(2.7–11)
4 (2014–2015) 1008 9.6Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(6.3–14.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 991 9.2Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(5.8–14.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 3.3Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(1.1–5.5)
12-19 years
1 (2007–2009) 882 22.4
(15.3–31.7)
<LOD <LOD 8.3Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(3.8–13)
19Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(8.3–30)
2 (2009–2011) 928 21.5
(16.6–27.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 889 16.6
(12.0–22.6)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 13Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(7.6–19)
4 (2014–2015) 901 14.1
(10.7–18.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 903 16.5
(12.1–22.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
20-39 years
1 (2007–2009) 874 14.8
(11.0–19.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 1009 20.5Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(14.0–29.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 792 7.3Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(4.2–12.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 785 13.2
(9.1–18.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 809 11.0Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(6.2–18.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
40-59 years
1 (2007–2009) 947 11.4
(9.0–14.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 972 8.1Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(5.6–11.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 851 10.1Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(6.2–16.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 827 12.2Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(7.9–18.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 814 7.1Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(4.1–12.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
60-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 956 8.8
(6.3–12.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 925 8.9
(6.5–12.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 917 6.5Table 10.1.1 footnote E
(4.2–10.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 874 5.9
(4.5–7.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 868 9.0
(6.4–12.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 1, 1, 1.1, 1.1, and 1.1 μg/L, respectively.

Table 10.1.2: Cotinine (non-smokers) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 10.1.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 10.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 5455 14.3
(11.5–17.7)
<LOD <LOD 3.3
(<LOD–4.4)
Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 4976 9.3
(6.9–12.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 6.1Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–10)
4 (2014–2015) 4906 11.3
(9.2–13.8)
<LOD <LOD 2.6
(<LOD–3.5)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 4914 9.8
(7.2–13.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
Males, 3-79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 10.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2588 17.9
(14.3–22.2)
<LOD <LOD 3.9Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–5.9)
Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 2444 11.0
(7.6–15.5)
<LOD <LOD 2.4Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–3.3)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 2445 12.0
(9.6–14.8)
<LOD <LOD 2.6Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–4.3)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 2435 12.6Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(8.1–19.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
Females, 3-79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 10.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2867 10.9
(8.6–13.7)
<LOD <LOD 3.0
(<LOD–3.9)
Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 2532 7.9
(5.7–10.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 5.2Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–7.8)
4 (2014–2015) 2461 10.6
(7.6–14.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 2479 7.2
(5.6–9.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 4.1Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–5.9)
3-5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 10.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 572 17.3Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(9.2–30.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 521 10.5Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(6.7–16.0)
<LOD <LOD 5.6Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–7.7)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 512 16.7Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(11.2–24.2)
<LOD <LOD 3.7Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(2.2–5.2)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 541 9.6Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(5.7–15.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
6-11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1042 15.9
(12.6–19.8)
<LOD <LOD 6.2Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(1.9–10)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 1059 16.9
(12.4–22.8)
<LOD <LOD 5.2Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(1.9–8.5)
12Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(5.4–18)
3 (2012–2013) 1007 10.5
(7.3–14.9)
<LOD <LOD 3.5Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–5.8)
7.7Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(2.6–13)
4 (2014–2015) 1007 9.6Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(6.3–14.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 990 9.2Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(5.8–14.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 5.7
(3.9–7.6)
12-19 years
1 (2007–2009) 881 22.4
(15.3–31.7)
<LOD <LOD 7.9Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(4.6–11)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 926 21.5
(16.6–27.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 889 16.6
(12.0–22.6)
<LOD <LOD 3.2Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–5.5)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 901 14.1
(10.7–18.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 900 16.5
(12.1–22.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
20-39 years
1 (2007–2009) 871 14.8
(11.0–19.7)
<LOD <LOD 4.5Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–7.4)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 1007 20.5Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(14.0–29.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 792 7.3Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(4.2–12.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 3.3Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–5.2)
4 (2014–2015) 785 13.2
(9.1–18.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 807 11.0Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(6.2–18.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
40-59 years
1 (2007–2009) 944 11.4
(9.0–14.2)
<LOD <LOD 4.6Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–6.4)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 970 8.1Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(5.6–11.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 4.7Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–7.8)
3 (2012–2013) 850 10.1Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(6.2–16.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 827 12.2Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(7.9–18.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 810 7.1Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(4.1–12.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
60-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 956 8.8
(6.3–12.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 921 8.9
(6.5–12.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
3 (2012–2013) 917 6.5Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(4.2–10.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 4.1Table 10.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–6.8)
4 (2014–2015) 874 5.9
(4.5–7.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 866 9.0
(6.4–12.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 10.1.3: Cotinine (smokers) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 12–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 10.1.3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 12-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 805 96.8
(94.1–98.3)
590
(420–820)
Table footnote F 1000
(810–1200)
2200
(2000–2400)
2600
(2300–2900)
2 (2009–2011) 819 94.5
(91.0–96.7)
490
(340–700)
Table footnote F 1000
(810–1200)
2200
(1900–2500)
2600
(2100–3100)
3 (2012–2013) 701 95.0
(91.0–97.3)
490
(410–590)
Table footnote F 990
(900–1100)
2000
(1600–2300)
2300
(2000–2600)
4 (2014–2015) 667 95.5
(91.2–97.7)
550
(420–710)
Table footnote F 1000
(830–1200)
2300
(1900–2700)
2800
(2400–3200)
5 (2016–2017) 571 96.8
(93.5–98.5)
580
(460–730)
Table footnote F 910
(790–1000)
1900
(1700–2100)
2300
(2000–2600)
Males, 12-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 406 96.0
(91.2–98.3)
660Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(400–1100)
Table footnote F 1200
(920–1500)
2300
(2000–2600)
2800
(2400–3300)
2 (2009–2011) 425 94.6
(89.3–97.4)
470Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(280–770)
Table footnote F 1000
(780–1200)
2300
(1900–2700)
2900
(2300–3500)
3 (2012–2013) 387 94.4
(86.6–97.8)
460
(340–630)
Table footnote F 990
(820–1100)
2100
(1700–2500)
2400
(2100–2600)
4 (2014–2015) 359 97.4
(89.3–99.4)
610
(470–800)
Table footnote F 980
(830–1100)
2200
(1800–2500)
2600
(1800–3400)
5 (2016–2017) 312 97.8
(96.3–98.7)
660
(520–830)
Table footnote F 940
(740–1100)
1900
(1600–2200)
2300
(1700–2800)
Females, 12-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 399 97.6
(95.4–98.8)
520
(390–700)
Table footnote F 860
(640–1100)
2100
(1900–2300)
2500
(2300–2700)
2 (2009–2011) 394 94.4
(87.2–97.6)
510Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(320–810)
Table footnote F 1000
(720–1300)
2100
(1800–2400)
2400
(1900–2900)
3 (2012–2013) 314 95.9
(89.8–98.4)
550
(380–790)
Table footnote F 990
(760–1200)
1700
(1200–2300)
2100
(1700–2500)
4 (2014–2015) 308 92.8
(82.8–97.2)
470Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(250–870)
Table footnote F 1100
(820–1400)
2500
(1900–3100)
2800
(2500–3100)
5 (2016–2017) 259 95.1
(84.7–98.5)
460Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(280–760)
Table footnote F 850
(640–1100)
1800
(1500–2100)
2300
(1700–3000)
12-19 years
1 (2007–2009) 102 90.7
(81.1–95.7)
160Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(78–330)
<LOD Table footnote F 1600
(1400–1900)
Table footnote X
2 (2009–2011) 102 82.4
(59.2–93.8)
Table footnote F <LOD Table footnote F 1700
(1200–2300)
Table footnote X
3 (2012–2013) 98 84.1
(68.9–92.6)
Table footnote F Table footnote X Table footnote F Table footnote X Table footnote X
4 (2014–2015) 73 82.2
(53.7–94.8)
Table footnote F Table footnote X 430Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(260–610)
Table footnote X Table footnote X
5 (2016–2017) 57 95.2
(83.4–98.7)
240Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(120–470)
Table footnote X 430Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(200–660)
Table footnote X Table footnote X
20-39 years
1 (2007–2009) 300 96.2
(88.8–98.8)
500Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(300–850)
Table footnote F 930
(620–1200)
2000
(1800–2200)
2500
(2100–2900)
2 (2009–2011) 311 92.1
(85.0–95.9)
400Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(260–630)
Table footnote F 850
(570–1100)
2200
(1600–2900)
2900
(2200–3600)
3 (2012–2013) 254 93.5
(76.4–98.4)
310Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(190–520)
Table footnote F 700Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(350–1100)
1600
(1300–1900)
2000
(1600–2400)
4 (2014–2015) 271 93.0
(81.2–97.6)
360Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(220–600)
Table footnote F 970
(620–1300)
2400
(1600–3200)
2900
(2200–3500)
5 (2016–2017) 220 95.4
(90.2–97.9)
520Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(340–780)
Table footnote F 1000
(730–1300)
1900
(1700–2000)
2100
(1900–2200)
40-59 years
1 (2007–2009) 275 98.4
(96.1–99.3)
830
(610–1100)
Table footnote F 1200
(910–1500)
2500
(2200–2800)
2800
(2400–3100)
2 (2009–2011) 253 99.2
(96.6–99.8)
800Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(480–1300)
Table footnote F 1400
(1000–1700)
2200
(1900–2600)
2600
(2000–3300)
3 (2012–2013) 228 96.9
(89.7–99.1)
770
(550–1100)
340Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(150–530)
1000
(890–1200)
2100
(1700–2600)
2300
(2000–2700)
4 (2014–2015) 208 98.7
(95.0–99.7)
880
(770–1000)
360Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(190–540)
1100
(870–1400)
2600
(1900–3200)
2900
(2400–3300)
5 (2016–2017) 182 97.6
(86.6–99.6)
630Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(430–920)
Table footnote F 910
(730–1100)
2000
(1600–2500)
Table footnote X
60-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 128 96.7
(86.1–99.3)
650Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(430–980)
Table footnote F 860
(600–1100)
2200
(1900–2400)
Table footnote X
2 (2009–2011) 153 94.1
(75.3–98.8)
Table footnote F Table footnote F 980
(720–1200)
1800
(1500–2000)
Table footnote X
3 (2012–2013) 121 99.5
(96.5–99.9)
940
(800–1100)
390Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(240–540)
990
(830–1200)
2100
(1400–2700)
Table footnote X
4 (2014–2015) 115 99.0
(95.1–99.8)
920
(720–1200)
440Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(250–630)
990Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(620–1400)
1900
(1500–2200)
Table footnote X
5 (2016–2017) 112 99.4
(91.7–100)
850
(640–1100)
400Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(160–640)
910
(710–1100)
1900Table 10.1.3 footnote E
(970–2800)
Table footnote X

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 1, 1, 1.1, 1.1, and 1.1 μg/L, respectively.

Table 10.1.4: Cotinine (smokers) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 12–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 10.1.4 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 12-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 803 96.8
(94.1–98.3)
650
(480–890)
Table footnote F 1000
(830–1200)
3000
(2500–3500)
4400
(3500–5300)
2 (2009–2011) 816 94.5
(91.0–96.7)
430Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(290–630)
Table footnote F 840
(620–1100)
2700
(1800–3700)
3800Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(2300–5300)
3 (2012–2013) 701 95.0
(91.0–97.3)
440
(340–570)
Table footnote F 750
(590–900)
2600Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1600–3700)
3900Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(2100–5800)
4 (2014–2015) 666 95.5
(91.2–97.7)
480
(360–630)
Table footnote F 780
(650–910)
2500
(1700–3300)
3300
(2900–3700)
5 (2016–2017) 571 96.8
(93.5–98.5)
590
(470–730)
130Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(36–230)
830
(700–970)
2700
(2200–3100)
3400
(2700–4100)
Males, 12-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 405 96.0
(91.2–98.3)
560Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(360–880)
Table footnote F 930
(680–1200)
2300
(1900–2700)
3200
(2300–4200)
2 (2009–2011) 425 94.6
(89.3–97.4)
370Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(210–620)
Table footnote F 730
(480–980)
2700Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1600–3700)
3700Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(2300–5100)
3 (2012–2013) 387 94.4
(86.6–97.8)
360Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(250–520)
Table footnote F 710
(500–920)
2300
(1500–3100)
3000Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1900–4100)
4 (2014–2015) 358 97.4
(89.3–99.4)
500
(410–610)
Table footnote F 770
(630–900)
2900Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1600–4200)
3300
(2500–4200)
5 (2016–2017) 312 97.8
(96.3–98.7)
600
(470–760)
Table footnote F 830
(650–1000)
2400
(1600–3200)
3300
(2300–4300)
Females, 12-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 398 97.6
(95.4–98.8)
780
(590–1000)
Table footnote F 1100
(900–1400)
3700
(2900–4500)
5500
(4300–6600)
2 (2009–2011) 391 94.4
(87.2–97.6)
520Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(300–890)
Table footnote F 1000
(650–1400)
Table footnote F 4800Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(2300–7400)
3 (2012–2013) 314 95.9
(89.8–98.4)
600
(420–850)
Table footnote F 860Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(510–1200)
3200Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1000–5300)
4900
(3300–6400)
4 (2014–2015) 308 92.8
(82.8–97.2)
450Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(240–850)
Table footnote F 830Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(440–1200)
2500
(1800–3100)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 259 95.1
(84.7–98.5)
570Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(360–890)
Table footnote F 850Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(510–1200)
2800Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1600–4000)
3800
(2900–4700)
12-19 years
1 (2007–2009) 102 90.7
(81.1–95.7)
120Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(58–250)
<LOD 290Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(<LOD–470)
1400Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(600–2200)
Table footnote X
2 (2009–2011) 102 82.4
(59.2–93.8)
Table footnote F <LOD Table footnote F 1300
(990–1500)
Table footnote X
3 (2012–2013) 98 84.1
(68.9–92.6)
Table footnote F Table footnote X Table footnote F Table footnote X Table footnote X
4 (2014–2015) 72 82.2
(53.7–94.8)
Table footnote F Table footnote X Table footnote F Table footnote X Table footnote X
5 (2016–2017) 57 95.2
(83.4–98.7)
Table footnote F Table footnote X Table footnote F Table footnote X Table footnote X
20-39 years
1 (2007–2009) 299 96.2
(88.8–98.8)
510Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(310–840)
Table footnote F 850
(560–1100)
2200
(1900–2600)
2500
(1900–3000)
2 (2009–2011) 311 92.1
(85.0–95.9)
330Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(200–530)
Table footnote F 710
(470–940)
2300
(1500–3000)
3200Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1700–4700)
3 (2012–2013) 254 93.5
(76.4–98.4)
230Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(120–410)
Table footnote F 520Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(310–720)
1500Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(830–2200)
2100Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1300–2900)
4 (2014–2015) 271 93.0
(81.2–97.6)
300Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(170–520)
Table footnote F 600
(390–800)
2300Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1200–3400)
3200
(2300–4200)
5 (2016–2017) 220 95.4
(90.2–97.9)
420Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(270–640)
Table footnote F 640
(480–810)
1800Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(960–2700)
1900
(1400–2400)
40-59 years
1 (2007–2009) 275 98.4
(96.1–99.3)
1000
(810–1300)
Table footnote F 1300
(920–1600)
4100
(2900–5400)
5500
(4400–6600)
2 (2009–2011) 251 99.2
(96.6–99.8)
710Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(400–1200)
Table footnote F 990Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(560–1400)
3400Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1400–5400)
4900Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(2800–7000)
3 (2012–2013) 228 96.9
(89.7–99.1)
840Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(520–1300)
390Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(190–580)
940Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(570–1300)
3500Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1500–5500)
5200Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(2500–7800)
4 (2014–2015) 208 98.7
(95.0–99.7)
780
(610–1000)
210Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(120–300)
1000
(740–1300)
3000
(2200–3700)
3300
(2700–4000)
5 (2016–2017) 182 97.6
(86.6–99.6)
850Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(560–1300)
Table footnote F 1200
(840–1600)
3500
(2700–4300)
Table footnote X
60-79 years
1 (2007–2009) 127 96.7
(86.1–99.3)
840Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(530–1300)
Table footnote F 1300
(1000–1500)
3200
(2100–4300)
Table footnote X
2 (2009–2011) 152 94.1
(75.3–98.8)
Table footnote F Table footnote F 1000
(700–1400)
3000Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1700–4300)
Table footnote X
3 (2012–2013) 121 99.5
(96.5–99.9)
960
(730–1200)
390
(270–500)
960Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(530–1400)
3100Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(1600–4700)
Table footnote X
4 (2014–2015) 115 99.0
(95.1–99.8)
980
(780–1200)
400Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(250–560)
1100
(820–1400)
2100
(1700–2500)
Table footnote X
5 (2016–2017) 112 99.4
(91.7–100)
970
(720–1300)
330Table 10.1.4 footnote E
(160–510)
1100
(980–1200)
2700
(1900–3400)
Table footnote X

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

11 Summary and results for acrylamide

11.1 Acrylamide

Acrylamide (CASRN 79-06-1) is a chemical used primarily in the production of polymers such as polyacrylamides (ATSDR, 2012). Polyacrylamides are used to clarify drinking water and treat effluent from water treatment plants and industrial processes (ATSDR, 2012). They are also used as binding, thickening, or flocculating agents in grout, cement, pesticide formulations, cosmetics, food manufacturing, and soil erosion prevention (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009a). Polymers of acrylamide are also used in ore processing, food packaging, and plastic products (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009a). In Canada, polyacrylamides are used as coagulants and flocculants for the clarification of drinking water, in potting soils, and as a non-medicinal ingredient in natural health products and pharmaceuticals (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009b). Acrylamide can also form in certain foods as a reaction between naturally present components when foods are processed or cooked at high temperatures (Health Canada, 2009a). It is formed mainly in carbohydrate-rich, plant-based foods, such as potatoes and grains. The highest concentrations have been detected in potato chips and french fries, acrylamide has been found in other foods as well (Health Canada, 2012).

Acrylamide may enter the environment during production and industrial use (ATSDR, 2012). The main source of acrylamide in drinking water is through the release of residual monomers from polyacrylamides used as clarifiers in drinking water treatment processes (ATSDR, 2012). Acrylamide is also a component of cigarette smoke and may be released to indoor air as a result of smoking (NTP, 2005; Urban et al., 2006).

Acrylamide exposure in the general population occurs primarily through food (ATSDR, 2012; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009b). Inhalation of tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is also a major source of inhalation exposure for the general population; tobacco smoke may be the main source of acrylamide exposure for some smokers (ATSDR, 2012; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009b; EFSA CONTAM Panel, 2015). Compared with food and cigarettes, exposure from other sources (e.g., drinking water, air, consumer product use) is very low (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009b). Animal studies indicate that acrylamide is readily absorbed via oral and pulmonary routes, and to a lesser degree following dermal exposure (ATSDR, 2012). Once absorbed, acrylamide is widely distributed throughout the body, accumulating in red blood cells (ATSDR, 2012). Acrylamide is metabolized via glutathione conjugation to form a mercapturic acid acrylamide derivative or by oxidation to form the epoxide derivative, glycidamide, which can also undergo conjugation with glutathione. Both acrylamide and glycidamide react with haemoglobin in red blood cells, forming adducts (ATSDR, 2012). Absorbed acrylamide and its metabolites are rapidly eliminated in urine, primarily as mercapturic acid conjugates of acrylamide and glycidamide (ATSDR, 2012). Acrylamide and glycidamide haemoglobin adducts are considered markers of exposure over the previous 120 days, the average life span of red blood cells (ATSDR, 2012).

Exposure to acrylamide has been reported to cause neurotoxicity in humans. Inhalation exposure to acrylamide in occupational settings has been associated with peripheral neuropathy, characterized by muscle weakness and numbness in hands and feet (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009b). Studies with laboratory animals have observed adverse reproductive and developmental effects, and have shown that acrylamide is genotoxic and carcinogenic (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009b; FAO/WHO, 2006). Reviews of existing epidemiological studies have found inadequate evidence in humans to establish an association between acrylamide exposure and carcinogenicity (Health Canada, 2008; IARC, 1994). However, on the basis of evidence in experimental animal studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified acrylamide as a Group 2A probable carcinogen (IARC, 1994). Further, on the basis of available evidence from animal studies, the Joint Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives determined that the estimated intake of acrylamide from certain foods may be a human health concern (FAO/WHO, 2006; FAO/WHO, 2011). Similarly, an assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (ESFA) concluded that acrylamide in food potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups (EFSA CONTAM Panel, 2015).

The Government of Canada has conducted a science-based screening assessment under the Chemicals Management Plan to determine whether acrylamide may present a risk to the environment or human health as per the criteria set out in section 64 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) (Canada, 1999; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009b). The assessment concluded, on the basis of carcinogenic potential, that acrylamide is toxic under CEPA 1999, as it is considered harmful to human health (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009b). Acrylamide is listed on Schedule 1, List of Toxic Substances, under CEPA 1999. The Act allows the federal government to control the importation, manufacture, distribution, and use of acrylamide in Canada (Canada, 1999; Canada, 2011). Health Canada's risk management strategy for acrylamide in food is focused on reducing foodborne exposure to acrylamide (Health Canada, 2009b). To reduce exposure to acrylamide from food sources, Health Canada suggests following the recommendations provided in Canada's Food Guide, thereby limiting consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods that are high in fat (such as potato chips and French fries), sugar, or salt (Health Canada, 2009a). However, occasional consumption of these products is not likely to be a health concern. Other suggestions for reducing exposure to acrylamide from certain foods include paying careful attention to oil and baking temperatures, following the manufacturer's cooking instructions, storing potatoes at a temperature above 8°C, washing or soaking cut potatoes in water prior to frying, and toasting bread or baked goods to the lightest colour acceptable (Health Canada, 2009a). Health Canada regularly reviews data on the concentrations of acrylamide in foods sold on the Canadian market; these results may be shared with industry, particularly if elevated levels of acrylamide are identified in certain products. Health Canada continues to encourage the food industry to further pursue efforts to reduce acrylamide in processed foods (Health Canada, 2012). Data on the occurrence of acrylamide in foods available for sale in Canada do not demonstrate a decreasing trend in acrylamide concentrations in the food types that can significantly contribute to dietary acrylamide exposure; therefore, continued mitigation efforts are supported (Health Canada, 2017). Health Canada has also amended the Food and Drug Regulations to permit the use of asparaginase in certain food products to reduce the formation of acrylamide during cooking (Canada, 2012; Health Canada, 2013).

Because acrylamide-containing polymers are used in drinking water treatment, most Canadian jurisdictions have requirements to meet health-based standards for additives that limit the amount of acrylamide present in treated drinking water (NSF International, 2015; NSF International, 2016). Health Canada has also set a maximum level for acrylamide in polyacrylamide-containing formulations used in natural health products in Canada (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2009a; Health Canada, 2018b). Acrylamide is identified as being prohibited on the List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients (more commonly referred to as the Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist or simply the Hotlist), an administrative tool that Health Canada uses to communicate to manufacturers and others that certain substances, when present in a cosmetic, may not be compliant with requirements of the Food and Drugs Act or the Cosmetic Regulations (Health Canada, 2018a).

In a study carried out in Montreal to assess the levels of acrylamide in 195 non-smoking teenagers aged 10–17 years, the geometric mean concentrations of haemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide were 45.4 pmol/g globin and 45.6 pmol/g globin, respectively (Brisson et al., 2014).

Acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were analyzed as haemoglobin adducts in the whole blood of CHMS participants aged 3–79 years in cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data are presented in blood as pmol/g haemoglobin (Hb). Finding a measurable amount of acrylamide or glycidamide haemoglobin adducts in blood is an indicator of exposure to acrylamide and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 11.1.1: Acrylamide — Geometric means and selected percentiles of haemoglobin adduct concentrations (pmol/g Hb) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 11.1.1 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2492 100 73
(65–82)
35
(30–40)
64
(57–70)
190
(160–230)
240
(190–290)
4 (2014–2015) 2529 100
(99.5–100)
67
(62–73)
38
(35–41)
60
(55–66)
150
(130–180)
200
(180–230)
5 (2016–2017) 2573 100 73
(68–78)
39
(33–44)
65
(61–69)
160
(130–180)
220
(200–250)
Males, 3-79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1225 100 79
(69–90)
36
(31–40)
68
(61–75)
200
(150–260)
270Table 11.1.1 footnote E
(160–380)
4 (2014–2015) 1267 99.9
(98.9–100)
70
(62–79)
37
(33–42)
64
(57–71)
170Table 11.1.1 footnote E
(110–230)
220
(180–250)
5 (2016–2017) 1284 100 81
(74–89)
39
(33–44)
72
(65–79)
200
(160–230)
260Table 11.1.1 footnote E
(140–380)
Females, 3-79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1267 100 68
(59–78)
35
(29–41)
60
(51–69)
180
(130–230)
210
(180–250)
4 (2014–2015) 1262 100 65
(58–72)
38
(36–41)
58
(53–62)
140
(100–180)
180
(140–220)
5 (2016–2017) 1289 100 66
(61–71)
38
(32–45)
62
(58–65)
120
(96–140)
160
(120–210)
3-5 years
3 (2012–2013) 471 100 59
(55–64)
39
(35–43)
59
(55–63)
87
(73–100)
100
(82–120)
4 (2014–2015) 484 100 60
(56–65)
37
(32–43)
61
(55–66)
96
(84–110)
100
(83–120)
5 (2016–2017) 479 100 69
(63–75)
44
(39–48)
69
(61–76)
100
(91–110)
120
(100–130)
6-11 years
3 (2012–2013) 505 100 61
(57–65)
37
(34–41)
62
(58–67)
100
(88–110)
110
(98–120)
4 (2014–2015) 507 100 62
(59–66)
42
(39–45)
62
(58–66)
90
(83–96)
100
(94–110)
5 (2016–2017) 507 100 71
(67–74)
47
(43–50)
70
(65–74)
100
(94–110)
130
(110–150)
12-19 years
3 (2012–2013) 507 100 63
(59–67)
37
(31–42)
57
(53–61)
110
(87–130)
170Table 11.1.1 footnote E
(96–240)
4 (2014–2015) 505 100 63
(55–72)
37
(33–42)
60
(51–70)
100
(83–120)
120
(91–160)
5 (2016–2017) 530 100 68
(61–76)
42
(35–49)
64
(59–70)
100
(82–120)
140
(110–180)
20-39 years
3 (2012–2013) 348 100 80
(65–97)
34
(24–43)
74
(59–89)
190
(130–260)
260
(190–340)
4 (2014–2015) 363 100 70
(60–80)
37
(33–41)
61
(53–70)
170
(120–220)
210
(170–250)
5 (2016–2017) 363 100 83
(72–97)
37
(27–47)
74
(63–85)
220
(170–280)
400Table 11.1.1 footnote E
(170–640)
40-59 years
3 (2012–2013) 311 100 83
(67–100)
35
(24–47)
66
(49–82)
230
(180–290)
330
(210–450)
4 (2014–2015) 312 99.9
(98.3–100)
71
(62–80)
38
(34–42)
60
(50–70)
180
(130–230)
250
(170–330)
5 (2016–2017) 345 100 69
(62–78)
39
(35–43)
58
(48–68)
170
(130–210)
220
(200–240)
60-79 years
3 (2012–2013) 350 100 63
(59–68)
34
(29–40)
62
(59–65)
130
(100–150)
160
(130–190)
4 (2014–2015) 358 100 63
(56–71)
34
(26–43)
59
(53–65)
150
(110–190)
190
(170–210)
5 (2016–2017) 349 100 69
(65–73)
38
(32–44)
65
(61–69)
130
(91–170)
170
(140–200)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycles 3, 4, and 5 is 11 pmol/g Hb.

Table 11.1.2: Glycidamide — Geometric means and selected percentiles of haemoglobin adduct concentrations (pmol/g Hb) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013), cycle 4 (2014–2015), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 11.1.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2492 97.8
(94.9–99.1)
68
(62–75)
36
(34–38)
65
(59–70)
150
(120–180)
190
(150–220)
4 (2014–2015) 2529 97.4
(93.7–98.9)
60
(54–67)
34
(30–37)
57
(52–62)
120
(100–140)
170
(150–200)
5 (2016–2017) 2573 99.2
(97.3–99.8)
74
(69–80)
39
(34–43)
72
(67–77)
130
(110–160)
180
(140–210)
Males, 3-79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1225 97.3
(92.6–99.1)
69
(62–77)
37
(35–38)
66
(58–74)
170
(120–210)
210
(160–260)
4 (2014–2015) 1267 97.0
(93.6–98.6)
61
(53–70)
33
(27–39)
58
(50–66)
130
(100–160)
170
(130–200)
5 (2016–2017) 1284 98.5
(94.8–99.6)
76
(68–85)
37
(30–44)
74
(66–82)
150
(130–170)
210
(160–270)
Females, 3-79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1267 98.2
(90.5–99.7)
67
(60–74)
36
(32–40)
64
(57–71)
130
(100–160)
160
(120–200)
4 (2014–2015) 1262 97.8
(92.1–99.4)
59
(53–67)
34
(31–37)
56
(51–62)
110
(81–140)
170
(110–240)
5 (2016–2017) 1289 100
(99.7–100)
72
(68–78)
42
(38–46)
71
(66–75)
120
(100–130)
150
(110–200)
3-5 years
3 (2012–2013) 471 100 80
(75–85)
51
(43–59)
78
(74–81)
120
(110–130)
140
(120–150)
4 (2014–2015) 484 99.9
(99.5–100)
76
(69–84)
49
(44–53)
73
(65–82)
120
(100–130)
140
(110–180)
5 (2016–2017) 479 100 93
(85–100)
59
(48–69)
92
(83–100)
140
(120–160)
170
(150–190)
6-11 years
3 (2012–2013) 505 100 73
(70–77)
47
(45–48)
74
(68–81)
110
(97–120)
130
(110–150)
4 (2014–2015) 507 99.7
(96.0–100)
70
(65–74)
44
(41–48)
66
(60–73)
100
(95–110)
120
(110–130)
5 (2016–2017) 507 99.9
(99.1–100)
88
(81–95)
52
(47–58)
86
(80–92)
140
(110–160)
170
(120–230)
12-19 years
3 (2012–2013) 507 99.0
(96.8–99.7)
62
(59–65)
35
(32–37)
60
(57–62)
110
(95–130)
160
(120–200)
4 (2014–2015) 505 98.0
(93.8–99.4)
58
(51–67)
34
(27–41)
55
(49–62)
99
(83–120)
120Table 11.1.2 footnote E
(58–180)
5 (2016–2017) 530 99.9
(98.6–100)
71
(64–78)
42
(34–49)
70
(63–78)
110
(96–130)
140
(120–160)
20-39 years
3 (2012–2013) 348 96.6
(80.0–99.5)
72
(60–86)
38
(30–46)
74
(62–86)
160
(130–190)
210
(160–260)
4 (2014–2015) 363 97.0
(91.3–99.0)
62
(52–74)
34
(29–39)
57
(49–66)
170
(110–230)
190
(170–220)
5 (2016–2017) 363 99.7
(90.3–100)
82
(74–91)
45
(35–55)
74
(64–83)
170
(130–210)
220Table 11.1.2 footnote E
(82–360)
40-59 years
3 (2012–2013) 311 97.4
(89.6–99.4)
71
(58–86)
36
(31–42)
62
(50–74)
180
(140–220)
230
(170–290)
4 (2014–2015) 312 98.3
(94.2–99.5)
63
(55–71)
35
(30–39)
58
(50–65)
130
(97–160)
160Table 11.1.2 footnote E
(57–260)
5 (2016–2017) 345 99.4
(96.4–99.9)
71
(65–79)
38
(33–42)
72
(64–80)
140
(100–170)
160
(110–210)
60-79 years
3 (2012–2013) 350 98.2
(95.9–99.2)
60
(53–67)
34
(29–39)
60
(50–70)
100
(90–110)
120
(110–130)
4 (2014–2015) 358 94.8
(86.4–98.1)
50
(44–57)
25
(<LOD–33)
50
(44–56)
98
(87–110)
120
(93–150)
5 (2016–2017) 349 97.6
(90.3–99.5)
63
(58–70)
35
(31–39)
63
(56–69)
110
(88–140)
150Table 11.1.2 footnote E
(85–210)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycles 3, 4, and 5 is 23 pmol/g Hb.

References

12 Summary and results for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances

12.1 Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are structurally related persistent organic compounds that have a fluorinated alkyl (carbon) chain structure. Perfluoroalkyl substances are characterized by the presence of a fully fluorinated alkyl chain that is typically four to 14 carbons in length. In contrast, polyfluoroalkyl substances are not fully fluorinated and have a hydrogen or oxygen attached to at least one carbon in the alkyl chain. Nine perfluoroalkyl substances were measured in cycle 5 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) (Table 12.1.1).

Table 12.1.1: Perfluoroalkyl substances measured in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Perfluoroalkyl substance CASRN
Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) 375-22-4
Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) 307-24-4
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 335-67-1
Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) 375-95-1
Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) 335-76-2
Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) 2058-94-8
Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) 375-73-5
Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) 355-46-4
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) 1763-23-1

PFAS are synthetic chemicals with high chemical and thermal stability and the ability to repel both water and oils (Kissa, 2001). These characteristics make them ideal for use in a number of industrial and commercial applications (Kissa, 2001). PFAS are used as stain-repellent, water-repellent, and oil-repellent fabric protectors, in water-repellent and oil-repellent paper coatings, wiper blades, bike-chain lubricant, wire and cable insulation, pharmaceutical packaging, and food packaging (Kissa, 2001). They are also used in engine-oil additives, nail polish, hair curling and straightening products, metal plating and cleaning products, fire retardant foams, inks, varnishes, polyurethane production, and vinyl polymerization (Kissa, 2001). Fluoropolymers manufactured using salts of PFAS are used in many industrial and consumer products, including surface coatings on textiles and carpets, personal care products, and non-stick coatings on cookware (INAC, 2009; Kissa, 2001; Prevedouros et al., 2005).

PFOS and PFOA are the most extensively studied and measured PFAS in humans (Dallaire et al., 2009; Hölzer et al., 2008; Kato et al., 2011). PFHxS is another perfluorinated compound that has been measured in humans, but it has not been examined as extensively as PFOS and PFOA. Other PFAS, such as PFBA, PFHxA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFBS, have been measured less frequently in the human population.

Worldwide use of PFOS and PFOS-related products has decreased significantly since 2002, when the world's largest producer at the time completed its voluntary phase-out of production (ITRC, 2017). PFHxS, a known by-product in the production of PFOS, was also phased out as a result. In 2008, replacements for PFOA were introduced, resulting in the subsequent phase-out of PFOA in the production of fluoropolymers (ITRC, 2017). Potential replacements for PFOS-based substances include new PFBS-based compounds that are rapidly eliminated from the body with relatively low bioaccumulation potential and toxicity; however, it is not yet clear if long-chain PFAS alternatives can achieve the same performance effectiveness of their predecessors (Chang et al., 2008; Newsted et al., 2008; ITRC, 2017).

PFAS do not occur naturally in the environment. Entry into the environment occurs through releases during manufacturing and transport, use of consumer products, and the disposal and breakdown of larger PFAS. As a result, PFAS have been detected in a wide array of environmental media (Houde et al., 2006).

For the general public, exposure to PFAS is widespread through food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, soil, and air (Fromme et al., 2009; Fromme et al., 2007; Hölzer et al., 2008; Kubwabo et al., 2005). PFAS have been analyzed as part of Health Canada's ongoing Total Diet Study surveys; levels in foods that are commercially sold in Canada are low, similar to levels that have been reported in other countries (Health Canada, 2014; Health Canada, 2016a; Tittlemier et al., 2006; Tittlemier et al., 2007). The contribution of individual pathways and sources of exposure appears to depend on age, dose, and substance. Generally, ingestion of food, drinking water, and house dust are expected to be the main routes of exposure for adults in the general population, whereas oral hand-to-mouth contact with consumer products, such as carpets, clothing, and upholstery, is a significant contributor for infants, toddlers, and children (Trudel et al., 2008).

Longer-chain PFAS are well absorbed in the body, poorly excreted, and not extensively metabolized (Harada et al., 2005; INAC, 2009; Johnson et al., 1984). Average half-lives of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in humans range from 3–9 years (Olsen et al., 2007). Shorter-chain PFAS are eliminated much more quickly; for example, the elimination half-life for PFBA is 72 to 81 hours (ATSDR, 2015). In humans, PFOS and PFOA are found in serum, plasma, kidneys, and the liver (Butenhoff et al., 2006; Fromme et al., 2009; Kärrman et al., 2010). PFAS have also been measured in breast milk and umbilical cord blood (Kärrman et al., 2010; Monroy et al., 2008). PFAS have a strong affinity for the protein fraction in blood and do not typically accumulate in lipids (Kärrman et al., 2010; Martin et al., 2004). Serum levels of PFAS, in particular PFOA and PFOS, can reflect cumulative exposure over several years (CDC, 2009). Although both PFOA and PFOS are biomarkers of exposures to themselves, animal studies have indicated that their presence in serum may also result from exposure to and subsequent metabolism of other PFAS (ATSDR, 2015). Absorbed PFOA and PFOS are ultimately excreted in urine (ATSDR, 2015).

The primary concern with PFAS is their persistence in both the environment and the human body (Olsen et al., 2007). Possible linkages between exposure to PFAS and adverse human health effects have been examined in occupational studies and studies of populations exposed to contaminated drinking water (ATSDR, 2015). Although no definitive links have been established, reports in children and neonates suggest associations between serum PFAS and thyroid effects (Lopez-Espinosa et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2014). A recent review by Ballesteros et al. (2017) also reported a positive association between maternal or teenage male exposure to certain PFAS and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, despite heterogeneity across studies. In several animal species, the liver has been identified as the primary target organ of toxicity for PFAS regardless of the route of exposure (ATSDR, 2015; EPA, 2002; Health Canada, 2006). PFOA has been associated with increased incidence of tumours in rodent bioassays; following the identification of PFOA and other PFAS as priority agents for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs, PFOA was classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) based on limited evidence in humans for a positive association with cancers of the testis and kidney (IARC, 2017).

In 2006, Environment Canada and Health Canada concluded that PFOS was not a concern for human health at current levels of exposure (Health Canada, 2006). However, PFOS and its salts were declared toxic to the environment and its biological diversity, and PFOS was added to Schedule 1 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) (Canada, 1999; Environment Canada, 2006). In 2009, PFOS and its salts were added to the Virtual Elimination List under CEPA 1999 (Canada, 2009). In 2016, PFOS was added to the Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances Regulations, prohibiting most uses aside from exemptions for specific uses (Health Canada, 2016c). Canada is also working through the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants under the United Nations to reduce the global production of PFOS (Health Canada, 2016c).

In 2012, Environment Canada and Health Canada published screening assessments for PFOA and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (including PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA), along with their salts and their precursors (Environment Canada, 2012; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2012b). The assessments concluded that the substances are an ecological concern, but that PFOA and its salts and precursors are not a concern for human health (Environment Canada, 2012; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2012b). Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids and their salts and precursors were not determined to be a high priority for assessment of potential risks to human health; as such, no human health assessment was conducted. Based on the assessments, both PFOA and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids and their salts and precursors have been added to the List of Toxic Substances in Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999 (Canada, 2012a).

Health Canada, in collaboration with the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water, has also developed guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality that establish maximum acceptable concentrations for PFOS and PFOA in drinking water (Health Canada, 2018a; Health Canada, 2018b). Both guidelines were developed based on liver effects in laboratory animals and are considered to be protective of both non-cancer and cancer effects. Health Canada has also developed drinking water screening values for several additional PFAS, including PFBA, PFHxA, PFNA, PFBS, and PFHxS (Health Canada, 2018c).

A number of risk management measures for perfluorocarboxylic acids and their precursors have been implemented by the Government of Canada. These measures include regulations prohibiting the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale, and import of four fluorotelomer-based substances found to be precursors to long-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids, unless present in certain manufactured items (Canada, 2010; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2012a). A five-year Environmental Performance Agreement that commenced in 2010 resulted in participating companies successfully meeting their commitments to eliminate residual PFOA, long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids, and their precursors in products (Health Canada, 2016b). Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids, PFOA, and PFOS, along with their salts and precursors, are now regulated under the Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances Regulations, 2012 (Canada, 2012b).

Globally, there is an initiative to reduce PFOA emissions and product content. In 2006, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and eight major companies in the industry launched the 2010/15 PFOA Stewardship Program. Under this voluntary effort, several companies exited the PFAS industry altogether, while others stopped the manufacture and import of long-chain PFAS and transitioned to alternative chemicals (EPA, 2018a; EPA, 2018c).The EPA recently released draft toxicity assessments for GenX chemicals and PFBS, members of a larger group of PFAS (EPA, 2018b). Canada's 2010 Environmental Performance Agreement was consistent with the targets and commitments by industry in the United States (Environment Canada, 2010). The European Union and the Australian government have initiated similar policies where PFAS are either prohibited or subject to further toxicity testing for evaluation.

Several human biomonitoring studies in Canada have measured PFAS in serum and plasma (Alberta Health and Wellness, 2008; Fisher et al., 2016; Hamm et al., 2010; Kubwabo et al., 2004; Monroy et al., 2008; Tittlemier et al., 2004; Turgeon O'Brien et al., 2012). In 2002, serum samples from 56 individuals in Ottawa, Ontario, and Gatineau, Québec were analyzed for PFOA and PFOS. Mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were 3.4 µg/L and 28.8 µg/L, respectively (Kubwabo et al., 2004). In 2004, PFOS was measured in plasma samples from 883 Nunavik Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic with a geometric mean concentration of 18.68 µg/L (Dallaire et al., 2009). The concentrations of PFAS were measured in 86 Inuit children, 11 months to 4.5 years of age, attending childcare centres in Nunavik between 2006 and 2008 (Turgeon O'Brien et al., 2012). The geometric mean concentrations in plasma for PFOA, PFHxS, and PFOS were 1.62 µg/L, 0.33 µg/L, and 3.37 µg/L, respectively. In the Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study of 1,940 participants, the geometric means (95th percentile) for PFOA, PFHxS, and PFOS in plasma were 1.65 µg/L (4.1 µg/L), 1.03 µg/L (4.3 µg/L), and 4.56 µg/L (11 µg/L), respectively (Fisher et al., 2016). MIREC is a national-level prospective biomonitoring study carried out in pregnant women aged 18 years and older recruited from 10 sites across Canada between 2008 and 2011 (Arbuckle et al., 2013).

PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were measured in the plasma of CHMS participants aged 20–79 years in cycle 1 (2007–2009), 12–79 years in cycle 2 (2009–2011) and 3–79 years in cycle 5 (2016–2017). PFBA, PFHxA, PFBS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA were measured in the plasma of CHMS participants aged 12–79 years in cycle 2 (2009–2011) and 3–79 years in cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data for the PFAS are presented as μg/L in plasma (Tables 12.1.2 to 12.1.19). Finding a measurable amount of PFAS in plasma is an indicator of exposure to PFAS and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 12.1.2: Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 12–79 yearsTable 12.1.2 footnote a, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)

Cycle
n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.2 footnote b
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1524 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1583 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 765 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 788 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 759 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 795 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.5 and 0.075 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.3: Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.3 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 2590 4.2Table 12.1.3 footnote E
(2.3–7.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.3 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1292 5.4Table 12.1.3 footnote E
(2.7–10.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.082
(<LOD–0.092)
Females, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.3 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1298 3.1Table 12.1.3 footnote E
(1.7–5.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.3 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 489 12.9Table 12.1.3 footnote E
(7.6–21.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.081
(<LOD–0.10)
0.099
(<LOD–0.13)
6–11 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.3 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 518 5.9Table 12.1.3 footnote E
(3.8–9.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
2 (2009–2011) 507 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 527 2.0Table 12.1.3 footnote E
(1.0–4.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
2 (2009–2011) 362 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 362 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
2 (2009–2011) 334 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 345 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 321 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 349 7.5Table 12.1.3 footnote E
(3.7–14.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.096Table 12.1.3 footnote E
(<LOD–0.14)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.5 and 0.075 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.4: Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 12–79 yearsTable 12.1.4 footnote a, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.4 footnote b
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1524 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1583 9.2Table 12.1.4 footnote E
(4.9–16.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.13Table 12.1.4 footnote E
(<LOD–0.18)
Males, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 765 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 788 11Table 12.1.4 footnote E
(6.0–19.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.095Table 12.1.4 footnote E
(<LOD–0.14)
0.15Table 12.1.4 footnote E
(0.094–0.21)
Females, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 759 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 795 7.4Table 12.1.4 footnote E
(3.6–14.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.11Table 12.1.4 footnote E
(<LOD–0.16)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.1 and 0.084 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.5: Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.5 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.5 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 2593 9.2Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(5.0–16.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.13Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–0.18)
Males, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.5 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1294 10.9Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(6.0–18.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.094Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–0.13)
0.15Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(0.094–0.21)
Females, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.5 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1299 7.5Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(3.7–14.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.11Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–0.16)
3–5 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.5 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 490 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.12Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–0.18)
6–11 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.5 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 520 10.2Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(5.6–17.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.14Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–0.21)
12–19 years
2 (2009–2011) 507 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 527 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.11Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–0.16)
20–39 years
2 (2009–2011) 362 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 362 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
2 (2009–2011) 334 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 346 15.2Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(7.6–28.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.12Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–0.17)
0.19Table 12.1.5 footnote E
(0.091–0.30)
60–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 321 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 348 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.1 and 0.084 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.6: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 20–79 yearsTable 12.1.6 footnote a, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.6 footnote b
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 2880 99.0
(97.7–99.6)
2.5
(2.4–2.7)
1.3
(1.1–1.4)
2.6
(2.4–2.8)
4.6
(4.3–5.0)
5.5
(5.1–5.8)
2 (2009–2011) 1017 100 2.3
(2.1–2.5)
1.1
(0.91–1.2)
2.4
(2.1–2.6)
4.3
(3.9–4.7)
5.3
(3.9–6.7)
5 (2016–2017) 1055 100 1.3
(1.2–1.5)
0.63
(0.57–0.68)
1.3
(1.1–1.4)
2.7
(2.2–3.2)
3.2
(2.5–3.8)
Males, 20–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1376 99.4
(98.6–99.8)
2.9
(2.7–3.2)
1.6
(1.4–1.7)
3.1
(2.8–3.3)
5.0
(4.5–5.5)
5.9
(5.4–6.4)
2 (2009–2011) 511 100 2.6
(2.4–2.9)
1.3
(0.99–1.6)
2.7
(2.5–2.9)
4.5
(3.2–5.8)
6.0
(4.3–7.7)
5 (2016–2017) 525 100 1.5
(1.3–1.7)
0.89
(0.80–0.98)
1.4
(1.1–1.6)
2.8
(2.1–3.6)
3.5
(2.6–4.3)
Females, 20–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1504 98.6
(96.3–99.5)
2.2
(2.0–2.4)
1.0
(0.92–1.2)
2.2
(2.1–2.4)
4.1
(3.7–4.5)
5.0
(4.4–5.5)
2 (2009–2011) 506 100 2.0
(1.8–2.2)
0.92
(0.73–1.1)
2.0
(1.7–2.3)
3.9
(3.6–4.3)
4.4
(3.8–5.1)
5 (2016–2017) 530 100 1.1
(1.0–1.3)
0.54
(0.47–0.60)
1.0
(0.90–1.2)
2.5
(2.0–3.0)
3.0
(2.7–3.3)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.3, 0.1, and 0.066 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.7: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.7 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.7 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 2593 100 1.3
(1.2–1.4)
0.64
(0.58–0.71)
1.2
(1.1–1.3)
2.6
(2.2–3.0)
3.1
(2.6–3.6)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.7 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 1294 100 1.5
(1.3–1.6)
0.87
(0.79–0.95)
1.3
(1.2–1.5)
2.6
(2.1–3.2)
3.4
(2.5–4.3)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.7 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 1299 100 1.1
(1.0–1.3)
0.56
(0.51–0.60)
1.1
(0.95–1.2)
2.4
(2.0–2.8)
2.9
(2.7–3.2)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.7 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 491 100 1.5
(1.3–1.6)
0.81
(0.72–0.90)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
2.7
(2.1–3.2)
3.6
(2.4–4.7)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.7 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 520 100 1.3
(1.2–1.4)
0.81
(0.74–0.88)
1.2
(1.1–1.3)
2.1
(1.7–2.4)
2.4
(2.0–2.9)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 507 100 2.1
(1.9–2.3)
1.2
(1.0–1.4)
2.1
(1.9–2.3)
3.4
(3.0–3.7)
4.1
(3.6–4.5)
5 (2016–2017) 527 100 1.1
(0.95–1.2)
0.63
(0.57–0.70)
1.0
(0.90–1.1)
1.6
(1.5–1.8)
1.9
(1.4–2.4)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 979 99.1
(96.5–99.8)
2.4
(2.2–2.7)
1.1
(0.95–1.3)
2.5
(2.3–2.8)
4.5
(4.0–5.1)
5.4
(4.8–5.9)
2 (2009–2011) 362 100 2.2
(1.9–2.5)
0.88
(0.64–1.1)
2.3
(1.9–2.8)
4.4
(3.2–5.7)
5.8
(3.9–7.6)
5 (2016–2017) 362 100 1.1
(1.0–1.2)
0.56
(0.49–0.62)
1.1
(0.94–1.2)
2.1
(1.8–2.4)
2.5
(2.2–2.9)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 983 99.3
(97.9–99.8)
2.5
(2.3–2.7)
1.3
(1.2–1.4)
2.5
(2.3–2.8)
4.5
(4.0–4.9)
5.4
(4.6–6.1)
2 (2009–2011) 334 100 2.2
(2.0–2.4)
1.1
(0.87–1.3)
2.1
(1.7–2.5)
3.9
(3.6–4.1)
4.4
(3.9–5.0)
5 (2016–2017) 345 100 1.4
(1.2–1.6)
0.68
(0.58–0.77)
1.3
(1.1–1.4)
3.1Table 12.1.7 footnote E
(1.8–4.3)
3.8Table 12.1.7 footnote E
(2.3–5.3)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 918 98.3
(95.3–99.4)
2.8
(2.5–3.0)
1.5
(1.3–1.7)
2.8
(2.6–3.0)
5.2
(4.7–5.7)
6.3
(5.4–7.1)
2 (2009–2011) 321 100 2.8
(2.4–3.2)
1.5
(1.0–2.0)
2.7
(2.1–3.2)
4.6
(3.1–6.0)
6.4
(4.6–8.1)
5 (2016–2017) 348 100 1.6
(1.4–1.8)
0.86
(0.71–1.0)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
2.9
(2.8–3.1)
3.4
(2.7–4.1)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.3, 0.1, and 0.066 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.8: Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 12–79 yearsTable 12.1.8 footnote a, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.8 footnote b
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1524 99.4
(98.6–99.8)
0.82
(0.75–0.90)
0.39
(0.33–0.44)
0.80
(0.70–0.90)
1.5
(1.3–1.8)
1.9Table 12.1.8 footnote E
(1.1–2.7)
5 (2016–2017) 1497 98.8
(96.9–99.6)
0.51
(0.45–0.58)
0.24
(0.21–0.27)
0.50
(0.46–0.54)
1.1
(0.80–1.4)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)
Males, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 765 99.2
(97.5–99.8)
0.84
(0.75–0.94)
0.43
(0.37–0.48)
0.80
(0.69–0.91)
1.6
(1.4–1.8)
1.9
(1.5–2.2)
5 (2016–2017) 755 99.4
(97.9–99.8)
0.54
(0.47–0.62)
0.27
(0.24–0.31)
0.51
(0.46–0.56)
1.1
(0.72–1.4)
1.4
(1.0–1.9)
Females, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 759 99.6
(99.1–99.8)
0.81
(0.73–0.89)
0.35
(0.30–0.40)
0.79
(0.69–0.90)
1.5
(1.1–2.0)
2.3Table 12.1.8 footnote E
(1.2–3.4)
5 (2016–2017) 742 98.2
(94.8–99.4)
0.49
(0.43–0.55)
0.21
(0.19–0.23)
0.48
(0.44–0.53)
1.1
(0.77–1.5)
1.7Table 12.1.8 footnote E
(0.79–2.5)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.2 and 0.13 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.9: Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.9 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.9 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 2442 98.8
(97.1–99.5)
0.51
(0.45–0.57)
0.24
(0.21–0.26)
0.49
(0.45–0.53)
1.1
(0.81–1.3)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)
Males, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.9 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1236 99.3
(98.1–99.8)
0.53
(0.46–0.61)
0.27
(0.23–0.30)
0.51
(0.46–0.56)
1.0
(0.73–1.4)
1.4
(1.0–1.8)
Females, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.9 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1206 98.3
(95.2–99.4)
0.48
(0.43–0.54)
0.21
(0.19–0.23)
0.47
(0.42–0.52)
1.1
(0.76–1.4)
1.6Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(0.79–2.5)
3–5 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.9 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 453 99.3
(97.7–99.8)
0.45
(0.40–0.51)
0.21
(0.19–0.24)
0.39
(0.34–0.44)
0.95
(0.81–1.1)
1.3Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(0.76–1.8)
6–11 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.9 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 492 98.7
(95.8–99.6)
0.45
(0.37–0.53)
0.23
(0.19–0.28)
0.40
(0.35–0.44)
1.0
(0.66–1.4)
1.5Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(0.45–2.6)
12–19 years
2 (2009–2011) 507 99.1
(97.8–99.6)
0.71
(0.62–0.81)
0.33
(0.27–0.38)
0.69
(0.63–0.75)
1.4
(1.0–1.7)
1.7Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(0.47–2.9)
5 (2016–2017) 494 99.4
(97.2–99.9)
0.41
(0.33–0.51)
0.21
(0.18–0.24)
0.37
(0.33–0.41)
1.0Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(0.51–1.5)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
2 (2009–2011) 362 99.0
(96.9–99.7)
0.79
(0.72–0.86)
0.38
(0.30–0.46)
0.77
(0.62–0.92)
1.5
(1.3–1.7)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 336 98.4
(95.6–99.4)
0.41
(0.36–0.47)
0.21
(0.14–0.28)
0.44
(0.37–0.50)
0.77
(0.61–0.92)
0.91
(0.71–1.1)
40–59 years
2 (2009–2011) 334 99.7
(97.6–100)
0.79
(0.69–0.90)
0.41
(0.32–0.50)
0.78
(0.65–0.91)
1.3
(0.99–1.6)
1.7
(1.1–2.2)
5 (2016–2017) 332 98.7
(90.2–99.8)
0.60
(0.48–0.74)
0.27
(0.22–0.33)
0.56
(0.47–0.64)
1.4
(0.94–2.0)
1.7Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(0.77–2.6)
60–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 321 100 1.1
(0.87–1.3)
0.45Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(0.25–0.65)
1.0
(0.86–1.1)
2.0Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(1.2–2.8)
2.7Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(1.5–3.8)
5 (2016–2017) 335 99.3
(98.2–99.7)
0.62
(0.55–0.69)
0.31Table 12.1.9 footnote E
(0.19–0.43)
0.61
(0.56–0.66)
1.2
(0.99–1.4)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.2 and 0.13 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.10: Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 12–79 yearsTable 12.1.10 footnote a, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.10 footnote b
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1524 79.3
(72.6–84.7)
0.20
(0.17–0.22)
<LOD 0.17
(0.15–0.19)
0.46
(0.31–0.62)
0.66
(0.45–0.87)
5 (2016–2017) 1450 91.4
(85.9–94.9)
0.18
(0.16–0.21)
<LOD 0.17
(0.15–0.18)
0.48
(0.34–0.62)
0.65
(0.45–0.84)
Males, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 765 83.1
(75.2–88.9)
0.20
(0.18–0.23)
<LOD 0.18
(0.15–0.20)
0.38
(0.26–0.51)
0.55
(0.41–0.70)
5 (2016–2017) 715 94.1
(80.3–98.4)
0.18
(0.16–0.22)
0.10
(<LOD–0.13)
0.17
(0.14–0.19)
0.44Table 12.1.10 footnote E
(0.28–0.60)
0.55
(0.35–0.74)
Females, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 759 75.6
(66.9–82.5)
0.19
(0.16–0.23)
<LOD 0.17
(0.14–0.19)
0.50
(0.32–0.68)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 735 88.8
(82.3–93.0)
0.18
(0.16–0.21)
<LOD 0.17
(0.15–0.18)
0.54
(0.35–0.73)
0.76Table 12.1.10 footnote E
(0.32–1.2)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.1 and 0.092 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.11: Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.11 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.11 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 2360 91.4
(86.0–94.8)
0.18
(0.16–0.20)
0.094
(<LOD–0.12)
0.16
(0.15–0.18)
0.44
(0.31–0.56)
0.64
(0.47–0.81)
Males, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.11 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1175 94.0
(81.9–98.2)
0.18
(0.15–0.21)
0.10
(<LOD–0.13)
0.16
(0.14–0.18)
0.40Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.25–0.56)
0.52
(0.34–0.71)
Females, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.11 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1185 89.0
(82.8–93.1)
0.18
(0.15–0.20)
<LOD 0.16
(0.14–0.18)
0.48Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.29–0.67)
0.74Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.37–1.1)
3–5 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.11 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 443 91.6
(83.7–95.9)
0.14
(0.13–0.16)
0.095
(<LOD–0.13)
0.14
(0.13–0.15)
0.25
(0.20–0.30)
0.32
(0.25–0.38)
6–11 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.11 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 467 91.7
(85.9–95.2)
0.14
(0.13–0.15)
0.093
(<LOD–0.10)
0.14
(0.13–0.15)
0.24
(0.22–0.26)
0.28
(0.24–0.31)
12–19 years
2 (2009–2011) 507 72.1
(62.0–80.3)
0.15
(0.13–0.18)
<LOD 0.14
(0.12–0.16)
0.31
(0.24–0.37)
0.39Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.22–0.55)
5 (2016–2017) 474 86.7
(78.9–91.9)
0.13
(0.11–0.15)
<LOD 0.13
(0.11–0.14)
0.22
(0.19–0.26)
0.34Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.11–0.57)
20–39 years
2 (2009–2011) 362 84.7
(76.1–90.6)
0.22
(0.20–0.23)
<LOD 0.17
(0.16–0.19)
0.39Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.21–0.56)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 331 88.9
(71.0–96.3)
0.16
(0.13–0.20)
<LOD 0.15
(0.12–0.18)
0.32
(0.23–0.41)
0.47Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.23–0.71)
40–59 years
2 (2009–2011) 334 73.6
(62.3–82.5)
0.17
(0.14–0.21)
<LOD 0.16
(0.13–0.19)
0.34Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.17–0.52)
0.51
(0.35–0.66)
5 (2016–2017) 322 91.7
(82.6–96.3)
0.21
(0.17–0.26)
0.099
(<LOD–0.12)
0.18
(0.15–0.21)
0.64Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.36–0.93)
0.89Table 12.1.11 footnote E
(0.40–1.4)
60–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 321 83.7
(70.9–91.5)
0.25
(0.17–0.35)
<LOD 0.23
(0.17–0.29)
0.65
(0.43–0.87)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 323 96.6
(90.7–98.8)
0.21
(0.19–0.24)
0.10
(<LOD–0.13)
0.20
(0.17–0.22)
0.47
(0.36–0.58)
0.62
(0.44–0.79)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.1 and 0.092 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.12: Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 12–79 yearsTable 12.1.12 footnote a, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.12 footnote b
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1522 59.3
(47.5–70.0)
0.12
(0.098–0.14)
<LOD 0.095
(<LOD–0.10)
0.37
(0.28–0.45)
0.56Table 12.1.12 footnote E
(0.30–0.82)
5 (2016–2017) 1576 38.5
(29.1–48.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.35
(0.23–0.47)
0.50
(0.34–0.67)
Males, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 765 55.5
(43.1–67.3)
<LOD 0.094
(<LOD–0.11)
0.34
(0.26–0.42)
0.47Table 12.1.12 footnote E
(0.27–0.67)
5 (2016–2017) 783 35.7
(24.7–48.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.37Table 12.1.12 footnote E
(0.21–0.52)
0.42Table 12.1.12 footnote E
(0.25–0.58)
Females, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 757 63.0
(50.8–73.7)
0.12
(0.10–0.15)
<LOD 0.096
(<LOD–0.11)
0.39
(0.26–0.52)
0.63Table 12.1.12 footnote E
(0.24–1.0)
5 (2016–2017) 793 41.2
(32.2–50.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.33Table 12.1.12 footnote E
(0.19–0.47)
0.55Table 12.1.12 footnote E
(0.30–0.79)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.09 and 0.12 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.13: Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.13 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.13 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 2583 35.8
(26.9–45.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.32
(0.21–0.43)
0.46
(0.30–0.63)
Males, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.13 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1289 33.3
(23.2–45.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.34Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.19–0.49)
0.42
(0.27–0.57)
Females, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.13 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1294 38.3
(29.8–47.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.31
(0.21–0.41)
0.54Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.32–0.76)
3–5 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.13 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 487 10.0Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(6.3–15.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.14
(<LOD–0.17)
6–11 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.13 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 520 13.6Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(7.6–23.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.13
(<LOD–0.16)
0.20Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(<LOD–0.28)
12–19 years
2 (2009–2011) 506 36.8
(25.1–50.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.19
(0.13–0.24)
0.30
(0.21–0.38)
5 (2016–2017) 525 16.4Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(10.5–24.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.15
(<LOD–0.19)
0.19
(0.14–0.23)
20–39 years
2 (2009–2011) 362 58.9
(45.7–71.0)
0.13
(0.10–0.16)
<LOD 0.098
(<LOD–0.12)
0.36Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.21–0.51)
0.64Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.22–1.1)
5 (2016–2017) 358 33.2Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(20.9–48.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.27Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.15–0.40)
0.36Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.16–0.56)
40–59 years
2 (2009–2011) 334 66.0
(51.3–78.1)
0.11
(0.095–0.14)
<LOD 0.095
(<LOD–0.10)
0.35Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.22–0.49)
0.43
(0.28–0.58)
5 (2016–2017) 346 43.2
(29.7–57.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.43Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.19–0.67)
0.64Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.36–0.91)
60–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 320 62.2
(38.9–81.0)
0.14Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.090–0.23)
<LOD 0.11Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(<LOD–0.17)
0.54Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.17–0.90)
0.84Table 12.1.13 footnote E
(0.42–1.3)
5 (2016–2017) 347 49.5
(38.7–60.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.36
(0.27–0.46)
0.49
(0.37–0.62)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.09 and 0.12 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.14: Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 12–79 yearsTable 12.1.14 footnote a, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.14 footnote b
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1524 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1577 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 765 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 784 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 12–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 759 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 793 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.4 and 0.066 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.15: Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.15 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.15 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 2584 0.10Table 12.1.15 footnote E
(0.10–0.30)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.15 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1289 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.15 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 1295 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.15 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 490 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.15 footnote b
5 (2016–2017) 517 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
2 (2009–2011) 507 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 526 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
2 (2009–2011) 362 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 361 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
2 (2009–2011) 334 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 343 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 321 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 347 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.4 and 0.066 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.16: Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 20–79 yearsTable 12.1.16 footnote a, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.16 footnote b
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 2880 97.8
(96.2–98.8)
2.3
(2.0–2.6)
0.70
(0.50–0.89)
2.2
(1.8–2.5)
7.3
(6.6–8.1)
12
(9.2–15)
2 (2009–2011) 1015 98.4
(96.4–99.3)
1.7
(1.6–2.0)
0.55
(0.44–0.65)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
5.9
(4.0–7.9)
8.9Table 12.1.16 footnote E
(4.6–13)
5 (2016–2017) 1057 99.6
(98.6–99.9)
0.98
(0.85–1.1)
0.28
(0.21–0.34)
0.99
(0.88–1.1)
3.1
(2.2–4.0)
Table footnote F
Males, 20–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1376 99.8
(99.6–99.9)
3.2
(2.8–3.7)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
2.8
(2.4–3.2)
9.3
(7.6–11)
16
(11–20)
2 (2009–2011) 510 99.6
(98.4–99.9)
2.4
(2.0–2.7)
0.94
(0.76–1.1)
2.1
(1.9–2.4)
6.1
(4.5–7.7)
9.4Table 12.1.16 footnote E
(4.9–14)
5 (2016–2017) 525 99.6
(97.7–99.9)
1.5
(1.3–1.8)
0.56
(0.40–0.73)
1.3
(1.0–1.5)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
Females, 20–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1504 95.9
(92.8–97.7)
1.6
(1.4–1.9)
0.50
(0.38–0.62)
1.5
(1.2–1.7)
5.3
(3.9–6.7)
8.5
(6.6–10)
2 (2009–2011) 505 97.2
(93.9–98.8)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
0.40
(0.34–0.45)
1.2
(1.0–1.3)
Table footnote F 8.2Table 12.1.16 footnote E
(3.4–13)
5 (2016–2017) 532 99.6
(97.8–99.9)
0.65
(0.57–0.74)
0.20
(0.15–0.25)
0.62
(0.50–0.74)
1.9Table 12.1.16 footnote E
(0.96–2.8)
3.8
(2.4–5.1)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.3, 0.2, and 0.063 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.17: Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.17 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.17 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 2595 99.7
(98.9–99.9)
0.90
(0.78–1.0)
0.27
(0.21–0.33)
0.90
(0.76–1.0)
3.0
(2.4–3.7)
5.3Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(1.8–8.7)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.17 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 1294 99.7
(98.2–99.9)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
0.43
(0.35–0.50)
1.1
(0.96–1.3)
3.6Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(1.2–6.0)
Table footnote F
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.17 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 1301 99.7
(98.2–99.9)
0.64
(0.55–0.73)
0.20
(0.16–0.25)
0.58
(0.48–0.68)
1.9
(1.2–2.6)
3.5
(2.2–4.8)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.17 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 491 100 0.61
(0.46–0.81)
0.24
(0.19–0.30)
0.54
(0.37–0.72)
1.8Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(1.1–2.5)
3.1Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(1.0–5.1)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.17 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 520 100 0.59
(0.45–0.77)
0.24
(0.16–0.31)
0.49
(0.41–0.58)
1.7
(1.1–2.3)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 506 99.2
(97.5–99.7)
1.9
(1.6–2.3)
0.60
(0.50–0.70)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
7.8
(5.0–11)
11Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(5.7–16)
5 (2016–2017) 527 100 0.69
(0.59–0.80)
0.25
(0.17–0.32)
0.58
(0.48–0.67)
2.1
(1.6–2.6)
3.6
(3.0–4.3)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 979 96.0
(93.2–97.6)
2.1
(1.8–2.4)
0.61
(0.49–0.73)
1.9
(1.5–2.2)
7.9
(5.4–10)
16Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(10–23)
2 (2009–2011) 361 97.1
(92.1–99.0)
1.5
(1.3–1.8)
0.41
(0.28–0.54)
1.6
(1.1–2.1)
4.7
(3.1–6.3)
6.0Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(2.1–9.9)
5 (2016–2017) 362 99.5
(96.9–99.9)
0.84
(0.73–0.97)
0.20Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(0.096–0.30)
0.69
(0.46–0.92)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 983 98.8
(96.7–99.6)
2.2
(1.9–2.5)
0.79
(0.54–1.0)
2.2
(1.8–2.5)
6.9
(6.2–7.5)
9.2
(7.4–11)
2 (2009–2011) 333 99.3
(97.8–99.8)
1.8
(1.4–2.3)
0.58Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(0.33–0.83)
1.7
(1.3–2.0)
Table footnote F 12Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(3.5–21)
5 (2016–2017) 346 100 0.93
(0.72–1.2)
0.28
(0.20–0.36)
0.91
(0.68–1.1)
2.6
(1.8–3.4)
4.2Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(2.1–6.3)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 918 99.3
(98.4–99.7)
2.8
(2.4–3.3)
1.1
(0.90–1.3)
2.6
(2.1–3.0)
8.4
(6.3–11)
13
(9.0–16)
2 (2009–2011) 321 99.4
(94.1–99.9)
2.2
(1.8–2.7)
0.86
(0.64–1.1)
2.0
(1.6–2.4)
6.9Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(3.5–10)
9.8
(6.7–13)
5 (2016–2017) 349 99.1
(95.0–99.9)
1.3
(1.0–1.7)
0.58
(0.38–0.79)
1.1
(0.89–1.4)
3.4Table 12.1.17 footnote E
(1.4–5.3)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.3, 0.2, and 0.063 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.18: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 20–79 yearsTable 12.1.18 footnote a, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.18 footnote b
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 2880 99.9
(99.9–100)
8.9
(8.0–9.8)
3.6
(3.1–4.1)
9.1
(8.1–10)
19
(16–22)
27
(22–32)
2 (2009–2011) 1017 99.8
(99.1–99.9)
6.9
(6.2–7.6)
2.6
(1.9–3.2)
6.8
(6.0–7.6)
16
(13–18)
19
(13–25)
5 (2016–2017) 1057 99.9
(99.8–100)
3.4
(3.0–3.9)
1.3
(1.2–1.5)
3.3
(2.9–3.7)
8.5
(7.0–9.9)
13
(8.0–17)
Males, 20–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1376 100
(98.4–100)
11
(10–12)
5.1
(4.3–6.0)
11
(9.5–12)
23
(18–29)
31
(23–39)
2 (2009–2011) 511 99.7
(98.3–99.9)
8.3
(7.4–9.3)
4.7
(3.6–5.8)
8.2
(6.6–9.8)
16
(14–18)
19
(14–25)
5 (2016–2017) 525 99.9
(99.4–100)
4.3
(3.7–5.1)
1.9
(1.3–2.5)
3.9
(3.1–4.7)
9.1Table 12.1.18 footnote E
(5.7–13)
13Table 12.1.18 footnote E
(7.8–19)
Females, 20–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1504 99.9
(99.7–99.9)
7.1
(6.3–7.9)
3.0
(2.6–3.4)
7.4
(6.4–8.4)
15
(14–17)
20
(15–24)
2 (2009–2011) 506 99.9
(99.1–100)
5.7
(4.9–6.5)
2.0
(1.5–2.4)
6.0
(5.1–6.9)
15
(11–19)
19Table 12.1.18 footnote E
(7.8–30)
5 (2016–2017) 532 99.9
(99.6–100)
2.7
(2.4–3.1)
0.99
(0.83–1.2)
2.4
(1.9–2.8)
7.6
(6.2–9.0)
10Table 12.1.18 footnote E
(5.6–14)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.3, 0.3, and 0.43 μg/L, respectively.

Table 12.1.19: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of plasma concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 12.1.19 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.19 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.19 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 2594 99.9
(99.8–99.9)
3.0
(2.7–3.4)
1.1
(1.0–1.3)
2.9
(2.5–3.3)
8.1
(7.0–9.3)
11
(7.1–15)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.19 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.19 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 1294 99.9
(99.8–99.9)
3.6
(3.2–4.1)
1.4
(1.3–1.6)
3.5
(3.1–3.9)
8.6
(6.6–11)
13Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(7.7–17)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.19 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.19 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 1300 99.9
(99.8–100)
2.5
(2.2–2.8)
0.99
(0.91–1.1)
2.3
(2.0–2.5)
6.9
(5.8–8.1)
8.7Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(5.1–12)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.19 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.19 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 491 99.8
(99.2–100)
1.7
(1.5–2.1)
0.89
(0.76–1.0)
1.6
(1.1–2.0)
3.7
(2.7–4.6)
5.5Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(3.2–7.8)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.19 footnote b
2 (2009–2011)Table 12.1.19 footnote c
5 (2016–2017) 520 99.3
(98.0–99.8)
1.7
(1.5–2.0)
0.96
(0.85–1.1)
1.6
(1.3–1.8)
3.4
(3.0–3.9)
4.2
(3.8–4.7)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 12.1.19 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 507 99.8
(97.9–100)
4.6
(4.0–5.2)
2.1
(1.9–2.4)
4.6
(3.9–5.3)
9.0
(7.7–10)
11
(9.2–13)
5 (2016–2017) 526 100 1.9
(1.7–2.0)
1.0
(0.90–1.1)
1.8
(1.6–2.0)
3.3
(3.0–3.5)
3.9
(3.7–4.2)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 979 99.9
(97.6–100)
8.2
(7.2–9.3)
3.5
(2.8–4.1)
8.6
(7.3–9.9)
17
(15–18)
21
(19–24)
2 (2009–2011) 362 99.8
(99.2–100)
6.2
(5.4–7.1)
2.1Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(0.99–3.2)
6.7
(5.8–7.6)
15Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(9.7–21)
19Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(9.6–29)
5 (2016–2017) 362 99.9
(99.5–100)
2.5
(2.3–2.8)
1.2
(0.95–1.5)
2.6
(2.2–2.9)
5.1
(4.1–6.1)
6.4Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(4.0–8.9)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 983 99.9
(98.7–100)
8.6
(7.7–9.5)
3.4
(2.8–4.0)
8.8
(7.9–9.7)
19
(13–24)
28
(19–37)
2 (2009–2011) 334 99.6
(97.7–99.9)
6.4
(5.7–7.2)
2.3
(1.6–3.0)
6.7
(5.7–7.7)
13
(9.8–17)
16
(13–19)
5 (2016–2017) 346 100 3.8
(3.1–4.7)
1.4
(1.1–1.6)
3.4
(2.9–4.0)
Table footnote F 19Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(5.2–33)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 918 100 11
(9.6–13)
4.4
(3.3–5.5)
11
(9.6–13)
24
(21–28)
30
(24–35)
2 (2009–2011) 321 100 9.4
(8.3–11)
4.6
(3.9–5.3)
9.8
(8.1–11)
19
(16–21)
21Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(7.5–35)
5 (2016–2017) 349 99.8
(98.9–99.9)
4.5
(3.7–5.6)
1.8Table 12.1.19 footnote E
(0.81–2.9)
5.0
(4.0–6.0)
9.9
(7.9–12)
12
(10–14)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.3, 0.3, and 0.43 μg/L, respectively.

References

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