2008 Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) annual report

... working towards the preservation of effective antimicrobials for humans and animals…

Healthy Canadians and communities in a healthier world

Public Health Agency of Canada

National Library of Canada Cataloguing in Publication: Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) 2008 Également disponible en français sous le titre: Programme intégré canadien de surveillance de la résistance aux antimicrobiens (PICRA) 2008 For further information or to provide comments please contact:

Jennifer Baker
Public Health Agency
160 Research Lane, Suite 103
Guelph, ON
N1G 5B2
Canada

or send an e-mail to cipars-picra@phac-aspc.gc.ca.

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Health 2011.

This publication may be reproduced without permission provided that its use falls within the scope of fair dealings under the Copyright Act, and is solely for the purposes of study, research, criticism, review, or newspaper summary. The source must be fully acknowledged. However, reproduction of this publication in whole or in part for purposes of resale or redistribution requires the prior written permission from the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0S5 or copyright.droitdauteur@pwgsc.gc.ca.

Paper: ISSN: 1910-4286

Online: ISSN: 1925-9859

Suggested citation

Government of Canada. Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) 2008. Guelph, ON: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011.

CIPARS Table of Contents

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Diagram of CIPARS surveillance components in 2008
  • Figure 2. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in human Salmonella isolates, serovars Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Newport; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2003–2008
  • Figure 3. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in human Salmonella isolates, serovars Paratyphi A and B, Typhi, Typhimurium, and Other Serovars; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2003–2008
  • Figure 4. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 5. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003-2008
  • Figure 6. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 7. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003-2008
  • Figure 8. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 9. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2006-2008
  • Figure 10. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 11. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003-2008
  • Figure 12. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 13. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2008
  • Figure 14. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 15. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2008
  • Figure 16. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 17. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2008
  • Figure 18. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 19. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken, by Campylobacter species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 20. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2008
  • Figure 21. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by province; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 22. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by Enterococcus species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 23. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2008
  • Figure 24. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 25. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006–2008
  • Figure 26. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 27. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2008
  • Figure 28. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pork; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003– 2008
  • Figure 29. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 30. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2007–2008
  • Figure 31. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 32. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2008
  • Figure 33. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pork, by province/region; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 34. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pork; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2008
  • Figure 35. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 36. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006-2008
  • Figure 37. Total number of prescriptions and total cost per 1,000 inhabitants for oral antimicrobials dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canada, 2000–2008
  • Figure 38. Percentages of total number of defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitant-days for oral antimicrobials dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canada, 2008
  • Figure 39. Total consumption (DDDs/1,000 inhabitant-days) of oral fluoroquinolones dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canada, 2000-2008
  • Figure 40. Total consumption of oral macrolides (DDDs/1,000 inhabitant-days) dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canada, 2000–2008
  • Figure 41. Total consumption (DDDs/1,000 inhabitant-days) and total cost ($/1,000 inhabitant-days) of oral antimicrobials dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canadian provinces, 2008
  • Figure 42. Total consumption (DDDs/1,000 inhabitant-days) of oral ciprofloxacin dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canadian provinces, 2000–2008
  • Figure 43. Total consumption (DDDs/1,000 inhabitant-days) of oral doxycycline dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canadian provinces, 2000–2008
  • Figure 44. Total consumption (DDDs/1,000 inhabitant-days) of oral moxifloxacin dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canadian provinces, 2000–2008
  • Figure 45. Total consumption (DDDs/1,000 inhabitant-days) of oral clindamycin dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canadian provinces, 2000-2008
  • Figure 46. Antimicrobial consumption (DDDs/1,000 inhabitant-days) in 19 European countries and Canada; European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption and CIPARS, 2007
  • Figure 47. Number of swine herds with reported use of no antimicrobials, a single antimicrobial class, or multiple antimicrobial classes, by administration route (n = 95); Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 48. Number of swine herds with reported use of specific antimicrobial classes, by administration route (n = 95); Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 49. Number of swine herds with reported use of specific antimicrobial classes in feed, by weight category of pigs (n = 95); Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 50. Number of swine herds with reported use of specific antimicrobial classes in feed, by reason for use (n = 95); Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 51. Number of swine herds with reported use of specific antimicrobial classes in water, by weight category of pigs (n = 95); Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 52. Number of swine herds with reported use of specific antimicrobial classes in water, by reason for use (n = 95); Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure 53. Number of swine herds with reported use of specific antimicrobial classes via injection, by reason for use (n = 95); Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure A.1. Example of sampling visits in regular and cohort swine herds over a calendar year
  • Figure C.1. Numbers of breeding swine herds for which disease status (positive or negative) was reported, by disease; Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Figure C.2. Number of grower-finisher swine herds for which disease status (positive or negative) was reported, by disease; Farm Surveillance, 2008

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Enteritidis isolates; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 2. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Heidelberg isolates; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 3. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Newport isolates; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 4. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B isolates; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 5. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Typhi isolates; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 6. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 7. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella -Other Serovars isolates; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 8. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from humans, by province and serovar; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 9. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from cattle, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 10. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle, by Campylobacter species; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 11. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chickens, by serovar; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 12. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chicken, by province/region and serovar; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 13. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chickens, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 14. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Campylobacter isolates from chicken, by province and Campylobacter species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 15. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by Enterococcus species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 16. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 17. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 18. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pork, by serovar; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 19. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 20. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Enterococcus isolates from pigs, by Enterococcus species; Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 21. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from turkeys, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 22. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from horses, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table 23. Number of antimicrobials in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from animal feed, by serovar; Feed and Feed Ingredients, 2008
  • Table 24. Total number of prescriptions of oral antimicrobials dispensed by retail pharmacies per 1, Canadian inhabitants, 2000–2008
  • Table 25. Total cost per 1,000 inhabitants for oral antimicrobials dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canada, 2000 2008
  • Table 26. Defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitant-days for oral antimicrobials dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canada, 2000–2008
  • Table 27. Total consumption (DDDs/1,000 inhabitant-days) of oral antimicrobials dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canadian provinces, 2008
  • Table 28. Number of swine herds with reported use of specific active antimicrobial ingredients, by administration route (n = 95); Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Table 29. Quantity of antimicrobials in dosage form distributed in Canada for use in animals; Canadian Animal Health Institute, 2006–2008
  • Table A.1. Categorization of antimicrobial drugs based on importance in human medicine
  • Table A.2. Breakpoints in antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates; CMV1AGNF plate, 2008
  • Table A.3. Breakpoints in antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolates; CMV2AGPF plate, 2008
  • Table A.4. Breakpoints in antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates; CAMPY plate, 2008
  • Table A.5. List of antimicrobials from the CompuScript database for each ATC class.
  • Table B.1. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from humans; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.2. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella Heidelberg isolates from humans; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.3. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella Newport isolates from humans; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.4. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B isolates from humans; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.5. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella Typhi isolates from humans; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.6. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from humans; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.7. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella -Other Serovars isolates from humans; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.8. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from cattle; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.9. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.10. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef, by province/region; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.11. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle, by Campylobacter species; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.12. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.13. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chicken, by province/region; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.14. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.15. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.16. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chicken, by province/region ; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.17. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken, by Campylobacter species and province ; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.18. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by Enterococcus species and province; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.19. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.20. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.21. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pork; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2008
  • Table B.22. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.23. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.24. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.25. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pork; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.26. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from pigs, by Enterococcus species; Farm Surveillance, 2008
  • Table B.27. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from turkeys; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.28. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from horses; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table B.29. Distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from animal feed; Feed and Feed Ingredients, 2008
  • Table C.1. Distribution of Salmonella isolates from humans, by patient age and province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table C.2. Distribution of isolates of primary human Salmonella serovars from humans, by source; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table C.3. Summary of antimicrobial susceptibility in the most common isolates of Salmonella serovars from humans and the agri-food sector; CIPARS, 2008
  • Table C.4. Summary of selected resistance patterns involving multiple antimicrobials in bacterial isolates from humans and the agri-food sector; CIPARS, 2008
  • Table C.5. Bacterial recovery rates of samples collected through the CIPARS agri-food components, 2002–2008
  • Table C.6. Distribution of Salmonella isolates across provinces; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2008
  • Table C.7. Total volume of active ingredients of oral antimicrobials dispensed by retail pharmacies in Canada, 2000–2008
  • Table C.8. Population demographics and availability of health care in Canada
  • Table C.9. Characteristics, production, and per-capita consumption of Canadian livestock
  • Table C.10. Number of births, slaughtered animals, international imports and exports, and farm deaths of Canadian cattle, pigs, and sheep

List of Boxes

  • Box 1. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in companion animals in Ontario
  • Box 2. Prevalence of selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens isolated from environmental samples collected from veterinary clinics in Southern Ontario
  • Box 3. Antimicrobial use and resistance on sheep farms in Ontario
  • Box 4. Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in retail meat from a Northern Ontario First Nations community
  • Box 5. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria isolated from wild small mammals in Ontario
  • Box 6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retail meat: 2008 2009
  • Box 7. Clostridium difficile in retail meat
  • Box 8. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Salmonella recovered from retail meat in Alberta
Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS)
Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS)
Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: