Detect, deter and defend against threats to or attacks on Canada. Assist civil authorities and law enforcement, including counter-terrorism, in support of national security, domestic disasters or major emergencies, and conduct search and rescue operations.

Detect, deter and defend against threats to or attacks on North America in partnership with the United States, including through North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD).

Lead and/or contribute forces to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and coalition efforts to deter and defeat adversaries, including terrorists, to support global stability. Lead and/or contribute to international peace operations and stabilization missions with the United Nations, NATO and other multilateral partners. Engage in capacity building to support the security of other nations and their ability to contribute to security and the security of Canadians abroad. Assist civil authorities and non-governmental partners in responding to international and domestic disasters or major emergencies.


The CAF continued to deliver on Canada’s defence objectives to ensure Canada remained Strong at home, Secure in North America, and Engaged in the world.

During FY 2020–21, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) conducted operations at home, across North America, and around the world. The Department of National Defence (DND) and the CAF supported government partners in response to domestic crises (e.g. the COVID-19 pandemic), maintained the defence of North America in partnership with the United States through NORAD, and continued to make valuable contributions to international peace and security alongside allies in deployed operations around the world. We ensured national strategic goals were met for missions from planning to conclusion. The CAF continued to strengthen its collaboration with other government departments and agencies working on the front lines of Canadian national security and strengthened efforts to advance the evolution of joint intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance.

During FY 2020–21, the CAF developed and refined its Joint Targeting process. This resulted in an increased ability to gather and analyze pertinent information, which in turn informed the development of plans that are better able to achieve operational and strategic impacts. In addition, the CAF evolved the targeting enterprise and strategic effects governance, further strengthening operational-level relationships with allies, specifically Five Eyes.

In addition, the CAF incorporated a dedicated Operational Assessment capability into its planning process which makes it possible for the CAF to accurately measure progress and challenges in the attainment of objectives. These assessments facilitates evidence-based adjustment to CAF activities in the pursuit of greater alignment and effectiveness of all CAF operations. Several regional assessments have occurred and significant progress in identifying challenges and successes in operational regions was made; however, COVID-19 hampered the assessment process over the winter as pandemic response planning took priority.

DND and the CAF worked with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) to evaluate the use of drones indoors in tactical police operations. The evaluation of the use of drones indoors was critical to:

  • Ensuring organizations tasked with the defence, security and safety of Canadians and Canadian values understood the capabilities available in partner organizations to address a common threat;
  • Developing common operating concepts and procedures to facilitate the safe and secure execution of the counter drone mission; and
  • Building, broadening and nurturing new and existing relationships to protect Canadians and Canadian values.

The All Domain Situational Awareness (ADSA) Science and Technology (S&T) program delivered a final report on air and maritime surveillance technologies. Defence is formulating a broader scope for its S&T program focused on situational awareness to enhance operational effectiveness.

In winter 2021, the IDEaS program consulted with private industry, consortia and innovator associations, and launched a Request for Information, to solicit their input on a proposed new program element called the “Classified Stream”. This new stream will enable DND and the CAF to issue classified challenges to industry and support new entrants into this domain. The department developed an aggressive, proactive approach to Cyber defence monitoring and reconnaissance. The development of teams, and learning from our partners at the Communications Security Establishment (CSE), allowed Canada to assume an assertive posture in the cyber domain, which enhances our ability to defend as well as improve the conduct of active cyber operations against potential adversaries in the context of government-authorized military missions.

DND established a Joint Operations Fusion Laboratory within the Canadian Joint Warfare Centre (CJWC) located at Shirley’s Bay, Ontario in August 2020. The Joint Operations Fusion Lab aims to design, test and experiment with new and emerging technologies and data curation approaches to increase capabilities in to Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR). At the same time, the Lab will ensure interoperability of C4ISR networks with allies.

The NATO Battlefield Information Collection and Exploitation System was tested at the Joint Operations Fusion Lab, demonstrating the ability to receive and channel data through the system, thereby making live operations possible.

Work to establish contracting methods for multi-source Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance platforms to support operations continues to advance, leveraging extant contracts with other government departments.

The department worked to synchronize development efforts with our allies in order to foster interoperability and strengthen intelligence sharing relationships. FY 2020–21 accomplishments included the following:

  • Developed policies and procedures to ensure safe and effective intelligence sharing with government partners and allies;
  • Collaborated in intelligence analysis and sharing across the department and with allies;
  • Maintained a standing intelligence liaison network with operational-level allied headquarters and leveraged this network for planning collaboration and information exchange purposes; and
  • Participated in Joint Intelligence organization Regional Operational Outlook conferences to support CAF Force Employment.

Through the support we received from our partners, the CAF successfully implemented non-kinetic targeting processes, identified the respective military authorities involved, and outlined the rules of engagement and the detailed coordination that are necessary for cyber operations.

Incremental Costs for Major Canadian Armed Forces OperationsEndnote 42 and information on current CAF operations and exercisesEndnote 43 are available on the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ website.

Gender-based analysis plus (GBA Plus)

The department continued to integrate into CAF’s planning and operations, and into the wider CAF institution, guidance provided from: the United Nations Security Council Resolutions; the Canadian National Action Plan on United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR) 1325; NATO policy and guidance; and Government of Canada direction on GBA Plus. While many operations faced challenges this fiscal year as a result of the pandemic environment, GBA Plus was still used to inform the planning, preparation, and execution of all operations. In FY 2020–21, the department:

  • Ensured that operation orders for deploying forces contained an annex on Gender Perspectives, as part of the Operational Planning Process;
  • Issued a mission and rotation specific directive to each deploying Task Force Commander which contained clear guidance on Gender Perspectives;
  • Maintained Human Security and Gender Perspectives as important planning factors, drawn from an analysis of the local population and operating environment;
  • Considered and incorporated gender considerations, and intersectionality in operations to improve our understanding of the local population within the area of operation, in order to better assess the effect of our operations in their country and therefore improve the effectiveness of our operations;
  • Ensured that deployed Commanders and Task Force personnel completed the required gender training and subsequently factored gender perspective considerations into daily operations and reporting; and
  • In addition, the Directorate for Gender Equality and Intersectional Analysis facilitated the application of GBA Plus to the development of the department's COVID-19 response measures, including Return to Business Planning, as well as the use of GBA Plus in the Defence Team's contribution to the Government of Canada's emergency response measures for health care support in long-term care homes, with vulnerable populations and in Canada's North.


In regards to a pan-domain Agile Command and Control (C2) experiment, the CJWC introduced a series of deep, analytical research topics using collaborative software tools. The culmination of this work was the interim completion of two key C2 initiatives: a C2 Baseline and a C2 Assessment Framework. Defence reached out to academia, national, and international partners such as NATO and The Technical Cooperation Program, in order to obtain advice on emerging and disruptive technologies for Agile C2 and Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (JISR). CJWC assumed command of the Joint Operations Fusion Lab in order to integrate its function and output into the CJWC mandate. The Lab serves to mitigate risk for the current and future CAF by examining and evaluating emerging JISR Fusion, C2 and targeting concepts and technologies through experimentation, prototyping and network integration, which in turn inform pan-domain capability development and acquisition processes. CJWC continued to serve as national lead and coordination office for NATO’s Coalition Warrior Interoperability Experiment. Due to COVID-19, the Coalition Warrior Interoperability Experiment was executed as a virtual event.

Additional Defence-related experimentation activities are outlined in this report under Core Responsibility 4 – Future Force Design.

Key Corporate Risk(s)

There are many risks associated with the Operations Core Responsibility. Two of the Key Corporate Risks directly associated with Operations are described below:

Physical Environment – There is a risk that changes to the physical environment of Canada and the world, including changes due to climate change, will impact the type, frequency and conduct of DND and CAF activities.

Cyber Intrusion – There is a risk of serious harm (e.g. loss of sensitive data, disruption to the network, physical electronic damage, loss of confidence in institution/reputation, etc.) resulting from a cyber intrusion.

The risks above can affect the department’s ability to achieve the Departmental Results of the Operations Core Responsibility.

As the Defence Departmental Results Framework reflects a chain of delivery from conceiving of the required armed forces, to developing them and then executing operations, the activities to mitigate the risks to Operations can also be found in other Core Responsibilities which deliver building blocks that make the results of Operations possible.

Many of the preventative and mitigating controls for these risks are described as activities of each Departmental Result below.

Departmental Result 1.1 – Canadians are protected against threats to and attacks on Canada

Through Operation LIMPIDEndnote 44, the Joint Task Forces Pacific, Atlantic and North through their Joint Operations Centres, in cooperation with their associated Maritime Security Operations Centres, and other government department partners, conducted daily surveillance and presence missions by alternating various assets including contracted air surveillance, Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Long Range Patrol Aircrafts and RCN ships as well as with ongoing space surveillance capabilities. The information gathered from surveillance missions was forwarded to the Regional Joint Operations Centres where teams of analysts worked at identifying abnormal patterns that might give clues on activities that merit further investigation. This operation allows the CAF to better predict, monitor and respond to crises in addition to contributing to the assertion of sovereignty on behalf of the Government of Canada.

In light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the Minister of National Defence and the Minister of Public Safety established a comprehensive Request for Assistance Agreement detailing a pre-approved list of tasks to ensure a quicker and more effective response to COVID-19, including vaccination efforts. CAF assistance to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) on border measures included contracting expertise and logistical support in setting up the testing points at the Canada/United States border.

  • Operation VECTOREndnote 45: The CAF support to COVID-19 vaccination distribution and administration across Canada. In FY 2020–21, the CAF fulfilled several Requests for Assistance as part of Operation VECTOR. A team of approximately 40 CAF members was seconded to support the PHAC with ongoing planning and coordination for the transport, storage, and distribution of vaccines. These included senior leaders, logistics experts, planners, a pharmacist, a physician, health care administrators and engineers. Additionally, the CAF provided planners and liaison officers to the provinces and territories to support vaccination distribution, delivered freezers to Nunavut and Yukon for the storage of vaccines, and provided the Arena at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Comox to the province of British Columbia for use as a mass vaccination centre. Furthermore, the CAF activated Canadian Rangers and supported the vaccination of Canada’s Indigenous populations in remote and isolated First Nations communities. The CAF also initiated support to Indigenous Services Canada with the administration of vaccinations to on-reserve communities in Manitoba with medical assistance teams and an Air Task Force for the mobility of the CAF as well as personnel from other government departments. Finally, the CAF supported Global Affairs Canada in the distribution and administration of vaccines outside of Canada, utilizing existing deployed operations as vaccination hubs.

Operation VECTOR

Private Pierre-Jean Kingsberry from 5e Ambulance de campagne, attached to the Land Task Force, prepares to give COVID-19 vaccine to on-reserve Indigenous communities in collaboration with Indigenous Services Canada, local Indigenous authorities and Public Safety in Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation (Nelson House), Manitoba, during Operation VECTOR on 29 March 2021.

(Photo credit: Corporal Matthieu Racette)

  • Operation LASER:Endnote 46 The CAF’s response to a worldwide pandemic situation. The Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC) leads this operation, and is the command authority for the six standing Regional Joint Task Forces, through which CAF support is delivered. They are situated in key locations across the country and provide operational command and control for task forces in and/or deployed to their respective regions. Operation LASER highlights include the following:
    • Provided support to northern, remote and isolated communities affected by the pandemic with Canadian Rangers. The Canadian Rangers coordinated activities with the Chief and Council and provided transportation assistance as well as food, water, and supply delivery to those in isolation. Additionally, the Canadian Rangers provided support to a public awareness program on health measures in effect;
    • Provided medical teams and General Duty Support troops to assist local health authorities in northern, remote and isolated communities struggling from the effects of COVID‑19;
    •  Established a local Alternative Isolation Accommodation which included nurses, health care assistants and general duty personnel;
    • Provided contact tracers to Public Health Ontario to conduct COVID-19 related follow-up, contact tracing, phone calls, and reporting;
    • Delivered one ventilator (loan and transport) to Nova Scotia;
    • Provided logistical planners and warehouse specialists to the PHAC for personal protective equipment and other equipment;
    • Supplied medical and general duty support to Long-Term Care Homes in Quebec (47 facilities) and Ontario (seven facilities); and
    • Arranged general duty, contracting, and real life support to 16 Land Points of Entry. The PHAC requested CAF support at the national and tactical levels. National level support included reinforcing federal interagency planning, contracting support, and enabling the PHAC Operations centre to establish a common operating picture.
  • Operation LENTUSEndnote 47: The CAF’s response to forest fires, floods and natural disasters in Canada. Provincial and territorial authorities are the first to respond when a major natural disaster occurs. If they become overwhelmed, they may ask the CAF for help. When the CAF responds to such a crisis, it is known as Operation LENTUS. Although a large scale Operation LENTUS did not occur, CAF assistance was provided to respond to flooding in Ontario and Rocky Mountains National Army Cadet provided support to combat wildfires in Alberta.
  • Other Requests for Assistance fulfilled included:
    • Assistance to Law Enforcement Agencies by providing air support to searches in Nova Scotia and Quebec;
    • Logistical and social worker support to the RCMP in the aftermath of the mass shooting in Nova Scotia; and
    • Air support in Quebec in the annual illicit marijuana eradication operation, Operation SABOT.
  • Operation SABOTEndnote 48: The CAF assisted the RCMP in the national eradication of illicit marijuana with helicopter support for Operation SABOT. The CAF deployed nine personnel and flew 24 out of 25 planned sorties (one cancelled due to weather). 51 197 illicit marijuana plants were destroyed with an approximate value of $30.7M CAD during FY 2020–21. The RCMP will not be seeking the assistance of the CAF for Operation SABOT starting in FY 2021-22 due to other options being available to the RCMP.

Operation LASER

Sergeant Martin Lapalme-Laviolette, a medical technician with the 41st Canadian Forces Health Services Centre, assists a resident at Sainte-Anne Hospital in Montreal, Quebec, during Operation LASER in May 2020.

(Photo Credit: Corporal Genevieve Beaulieu)

  • Operation PALACIEndnote 49: This operation is the CAF’s contribution to Parks Canada's avalanche-control program in Rogers Pass, British Columbia, where the Trans-Canada Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway cross the Selkirk Mountains in British Columbia. Its objective is to prevent uncontrolled, naturally-occurring avalanches and thus prevent blockage of the essential road and rail links between coastal British Columbia and the rest of Canada. Operation PALACI is conducted under a Memorandum of Understanding between DND and Parks Canada, which has jurisdiction over Rogers Pass because it lies within the boundaries of Glacier National Park. The CAF assisted Parks Canada for avalanche control with two rotations of 17 CAF personnel from November 2020 to April 2021.

During FY 2020–21, the CAF:

  • Collaborated with Canadian national security community partners through regular intelligence exchanges;
  • Coordinated Canadian national security community intelligence capabilities deployment; and
  • Formalised integration of Canadian national security community intelligence capabilities into CAF Joint Operations through the planning process.

The Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) remained positioned to advise, enable and lead in the detection, pursuit and defeat of asymmetric threats to Canadians and Canadian interests at home and abroad through a cooperative joint interagency and multinational approach. In FY 2020–21, CANSOFCOM:

  • Maintained detailed understanding of evolving asymmetric threats abroad and their potential implications in Canada;
  • Provided Special Operations Forces support to CAF missions;
  • Maintained forward postured forces to enable high-readiness response to mitigate threats in North America and around the world; and
  • Collaborated with allies and National Security partners to identify potential threats.

Canadian Special Operations Forces Command

Members of the CANSOFCOM hone their unique skillsets through routine training events to be able to respond to a variety of threats at home and abroad.

Results achieved

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018–19 Actual results 2019–20 Actual results 2020–21 Actual results
1.1 Canadians are protected against threats to and attacks on Canada % of requests for assistance that are fulfilled 100% 31 March 2021 100% 100% 100%Note *
% of force elements that are deployed within established timelines 100% 31 March 2021 100% 100% 100%
% of operations that meet stated objectives 100% 31 March 2021 92% 98% 95%Note **
Extent to which the Canadian Armed Forces is effective in domestic operations The Canadian Armed Forces is effective in the conduct of domestic operations 31 March 2021 Not Available
New qualitative indicator as of 2019-20
This is a qualitative indicatorNote *** This is a qualitative indicatorNote ****

Departmental Result 1.2 – People in distress receive effective search and rescue response

In FY 2020–21, there were 8 809 Search and Rescue (SAR) incidents (cases), with 1 821 cases having a final classification of 1 (Distress) or 2 (Imminent Distress). All Joint Rescue Coordination Centre SAR cases were handled effectively and delivered through to conclusion or handed over to an appropriate agency.

The 8 809 cases generated 648 SAR taskings for the CAF air assets. In the other cases, Joint Rescue Coordination Centres utilized assets of opportunity, including civilian aircraft and vessels that were available to resolve cases quickly and efficiently when safe and appropriate to do so.

Of the 648 times tasked, the CAF met their response timeline in 592 cases; therefore, 91 percent of the time. There are many circumstances that determine how a tasked SAR unit responds and therefore whether the response time can be met. Inclement weather and time to load additional fuel for long, extended missions are the main causes of delays. SAR mission coordinators used every tool at their disposal to ensure all responses to SAR incidents in Canada are effectively conducted and/or coordinated to conclusion, or to handover to an appropriate agency.

For more on search and rescue, please visit the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Search and RescueNote 52 webpage.

Results achieved

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018–19 Actual results 2019–20 Actual results 2020–21 Actual results
1.2 People in distress receive effective search and rescue response % of coordinated maritime, aeronautical and joint response to search and rescue incidents deemed effective 100% 31 March 2021 100% 100% 100%Note *
% of requests for Canadian Armed Forces aeronautical search and rescue assistance that are fulfilled 100% 31 March 2021 100% 100% 100%Note **
% of Canadian Armed Forces aeronautical search and rescue operations that meet established standards 100% 31 March 2021 95.2% 85% 91%Note ***

Departmental Result 1.3 – Canada’s Arctic sovereignty is preserved and safeguarded

The changing security environment requires that the CAF enhances its ability to operate in the Arctic. As such, the CAF has been conducting training and presence operations, that seek to improve mobility and enhance surveillance capabilities in Canada’s North. This increased familiarity and situational awareness will make the success of CAF operations in this harsh operating environment possible.

Operation NANOOKEndnote 54 is a presence operation and training opportunity designed specifically to enhance surveillance capabilities in Canada's North, as well as demonstrate the CAF's ability to project and sustain forces therein. The Arctic Campaign Plan is not yet complete; however, the concepts expressed in the draft are being implemented in time for its completion.

Operation NANOOK

Overflying Royal Canadian Navy frigate Her Majesty’s Canadian Ships (HMCS) Ville de Québec in August 2020, a RCAF CP-140 Aurora aircraft patrols the sky during Operation NANOOK.

  • The interagency exercise of Operation NANOOK was postponed due to COVID-19 restrictions. However, the multinational maritime live exercise, the domain presence objective and the surveillance and awareness objectives were both successfully completed, though reduced in scope.
  • The CAF Arctic Training Centre in Resolute BayEndnote 55, Nunavut, provided operational support to approximately 300 soldiers and support elements for the Land Task Force for Operation NANOOK-NUNALIVUT.

Through Operation LIMPIDEndnote 56, presence operations in the North have been conducted on a routine basis during the navigable season by Canadian Long Range Patrol Aircraft that were also used to support NORAD deterrence missions in the high North. Furthermore, new technologies and capabilities are continually being trialed and tested in the Arctic, most notably through Operation NANOOK.

Three Arctic Airpower Seminars were held to exchange ideas, find practical applications and build relations among defence, industry, academia and Indigenous stakeholders.

To continue the efforts of the five-year ADSA program, the ADSA Executive Group was established to guide the provision and usage of integrated science-based advice to DND, CAF and NORAD leadership on the performance and viability of Arctic surveillance technologies and concepts.

In collaboration with the United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Defence demonstrated air target detection with a mid-latitude, north-looking over-the-horizon-radar. Sufficient knowledge has been gained to develop an initial mid-latitude operational prototype. Additional research needs to be conducted to develop a polar north-looking over-the-horizon-radar.

The Arctic Security Forces Roundtable was cancelled due to COVID-19 travel restrictions; however, the Arctic Security Working Group was successfully held through a combination of in-person and virtual attendance.

Work continued to progress on the Nanisivik Naval Facility, although it was impacted by COVID-19 restrictions. The facility, located in Nunavut, will be the RCN’s forward logistics site and will permit the refuelling of naval and other government ships, including the new Arctic and Offshore Patrol Ships, operating in Canada’s North. Site work in FY 2020–21 included the following:

  • Received the sealift in Arctic Bay;
  • Transported/stored/secured materials at Nanisivik Naval Facility;
  • Videoed the leak detection system;
  • Completed a precision survey to assess the continued dock movement and the pipeline stretch (conducted by Underhill Geomatics); and
  • Completed the operation and maintenance manuals in draft form.

Currently, the contractor remains in care/custody/control of the site, performing weekly inspections with all cold-sensitive equipment safely in heated storage in Arctic Bay, Nunavut.

Northern Reaches – The Canadian Arctic Land Operating Concept, the operating concept for Land Forces in the Canadian Arctic was conditionally approved for publication in 2020; publication deferral was due to ongoing DND policy work on Continental Defence to ensure alignment. Final approval and publication is expected during FY 2021-22. Once published, it will replace Northern Approaches (2013) and address the very specific and unique aspects of operating in the Canadian Arctic, as part of Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy (SSE), including the following SSE initiatives:

  • SSE capital projects related to SSE 43 (acquire all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles and larger tracked semi-amphibious utility vehicles optimized for use in the Arctic Environment) and SSE 106 (Enhance the mobility, reach and footprint of the CAF in Canada’s North to support operations, exercises, and the CAF’s ability to project force into the region) initiatives have been aligned with their project milestones as outlined in the Capital Investment Plan;
  • The Canadian Ranger Enhancement was initiated in 2020 and will address the SSE 108 initiative (enhance and expand the training and effectiveness of the Canadian Rangers to improve their functional capabilities within the CAF) requirements;
  • COVID-19 restrictions limited Arctic joint exercise participation in 2020; however, participation will be re-invigorated once COVID-19 restrictions permit; and
  • Information-sharing on the Arctic was addressed through an agreement between the Canadian Army and United States Army to explore opportunities to prepare soldiers, units and logistic hubs to better operate in austere cold-weather and Arctic environments.

The Arctic Training Centre completed courses centred on this advanced land warfare niche capability that included participation of international partners in the highly sought Arctic Operations Course. This same infrastructure supports yearly Arctic deployments (NANOOK-series) demonstrating CAF’s capability to operate in all environments.

Results achieved

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018–19 Actual results 2019–20 Actual results 2020–21 Actual results
1.3 Canada’s Arctic sovereignty is preserved and safeguarded % of Arctic operations and exercises that meet stated objectives 100% 31 March 2021 100% 100% 95%Note *

Departmental Result 1.4 – North America is defended against threats and attacks

During FY 2020–21, the CAF ensured North America was defended against threats and attacks through the employment of conventional and special operations capabilities and collaborated with allies, regional partners and other Canadian government departments and agencies to position itself to deter, detect, confront and defeat pan-regional threats from nation-states and violent extremist organizations. Security and defence objectives were realized by:

  • Coordinating contributions to multinational and interagency coalitions;
  • Providing support to whole-of-government partners when requested;
  • Conducting Capacity Building through bilateral and multinational forums, and multinational training activities to address trans-regional threats at the source;
  • Maintaining strong relationships with allies, interagency partners and the Global Special Operations Force Network; and
  • Engaging in dialogues on continental defence planning, including future technological solutions to situational awareness in the Arctic and sea approaches to North America.

Through the NORAD Agreement, the CAF conducted binational maritime and aerospace warning and aerospace control activities to protect and respond to threats against North America. Maritime and aerospace warning missions involved the monitoring of aerospace and maritime activity from a continental perspective while maintaining — when authorized — awareness in the land, space, cyber and information domains to detect and characterize threats against Canada or the United States. Throughout FY 2020–21, key activities included:

  • Operation NOBLE EAGLE: Throughout FY 2020–21, NORAD supported Canadian and United States government departments, agencies, and partners to defend the air space of Canada and the United States from airborne threats. To support NORAD operations, Canadian and United States military personnel and resources executed a number of exercises. These exercises provided valuable opportunities to practise the binational and interagency coordination procedures required to act clearly and decisively in a crisis situation. In collaboration with DND allies and civilian partners, including the RCMP and Transport Canada, the CAF remained prepared to respond to all forms of aerial threats to Canada and the United States. The Canadian CF-18 Hornets form an integral part in the defence of North America. Along with our American partners flying F-22s in the Alaskan NORAD Region, and flying F-22s and F-16s in the Continental NORAD Region, they, in conjunction with ground radars and systems of the North Warning System, and E-3 Airborne Early Warning aircraft, help to detect, deter, and control North American airspace from asymmetric and symmetric threats.

Through a layered and integrated system of surveillance platforms and Command and Control (C2) systems, NORAD gathered, processed, assessed and disseminated intelligence and information related to man-made objects in the air and space domains.

To achieve information dominance and enhance C2, NORAD implemented the PATHFINDER program which aggregated independent, inter-agency, pan-domain data sources (air, land, maritime, space and cyber) to develop a fused operational picture.

Through a variety of Canadian and American information sharing networks and mutual support arrangements, NORAD processed, assessed and disseminated intelligence and operational information associated with activities within internal waterways and the maritime approaches to North America. This enabled the development of a comprehensive shared understanding of maritime activities to better identify potential maritime threats to North American security, and inform and warn Canadian and American decision‑makers of maritime threats to or attacks against Canada and the United States.

Despite COVID-19 presenting an unprecedented challenge, the NORAD and USNORTHCOM Command Centre maintained continuous operations throughout the pandemic.

The CAF response and support to the pandemic restricted significant development in the Evolution of North American Defence (EvoNAD) Study. The CAF, however, examined plans, initiatives and emerging threats to identify capability gaps, and to identify solutions to address the vulnerabilities posed by the gaps in support of delivering SSE initiative 111 NORAD Modernization. In FY 2020–21, NORAD addressed information-sharing on the Arctic through an agreement between the Canadian Army (CA) and the United States Army to explore opportunities to prepare soldiers, units and logistic hubs to better operate in austere cold-weather and Arctic environments.

In FY 2020–21, the CAF outlined the requisite capabilities and areas of investments required to effectively execute the Continental defence missions and fully define SSE Initiatives 109 and 111, North Warning System renewal and NORAD Modernization. Key activities included the following:

  • CAF investigated future technological solutions and capabilities for maintaining situational awareness in the polar region and sea approaches to North America; and
  • NORAD developed a Capability Requirements and Proposed Investments Summary to describe capability deficiencies that affect NORAD from executing its assigned missions.

More details on SSE Initiatives can be found in the Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence PolicyEndnote 58.

Results achieved

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018–19 Actual results 2019–20 Actual results 2020–21 Actual results
1.4 North America is defended against threats and attacks % of continental operations that meet stated objectives 100% 31 March 2021 100% 100% 95%Note *
% of Canada’s commitments and obligations to the North American Aerospace Defense Command agreement that are met 100% 31 March 2021 100% 100% 100%Note **
Extent to which the Canadian Armed Forces is effective in continental operations The Canadian Armed Forces is effective in the conduct of continental operations 31 March 2021 Not Available
New qualitative indicator as of 2019-20
This is a qualitative indicatorNote *** This is a qualitative indicatorNote ****

Departmental Result 1.5 – Canadian Armed Forces contribute to a more stable and peaceful world

During FY 2020–21, DND and the CAF continued to contribute to a more stable, peaceful world by maintaining ongoing commitments with regional partners around the globe. This was accomplished by enabling early warning of emerging crises, in conjunction with our Five Eyes allies and NATO Partners, via timely and credible intelligence processing, exploitation and dissemination. During FY 2020–21, we contributed to the following missions:

  • As part of Operation CARIBBEEndnote 61, the CAF participated in United States-led enhanced counter narcotics operations in the Caribbean and Central America, providing Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) and RCAF assets to work in co-operation with our allies to counter transnational criminal organizations operating in the region. The CAF has conducted Operation CARIBBE since 2006 with successive deployments of RCN ships and RCAF aircraft. Although it is challenging to measure the impact of this mission on substance trafficking at home, during those fifteen years, the CAF has contributed to the disruption or seizure of approximately 108 000 kilograms (approximately 238 000 pounds) of cocaine and more than 6 725 000 kg (approximately 14 million pounds) of illicit marijuana. During FY 2020–21, a CP-140 Aurora aircraft and four HMCS were deployed to the region to participate in detection and monitoring. Highlights for FY 2020–21 include:
    • Deployed vessels spent 130 days at sea and aircraft flew a total of 148.8 hours. Deployed assets disrupted a total of 4 165 kilograms (approximately 9 182 pounds) illicit drugs, valued at approximately $90.4M United States Dollars by working with partners in the multinational campaign;
    • CP-140 aircraft contributed to various interceptions resulting in the seizure of approximately 3 000 kilograms (approximately 6 613 pounds) of cocaine;
    • HMCS Brandon intercepted 870 kilograms (approximately 1 918 pounds)of cocaine; and
    • HMCS Saskatoon intercepted 250 kilograms (approximately 550 pounds) of cocaine and 45 kilograms (approximately 99 pounds) of illicit marijuana.
  • Operation ACKEE: The department continued to collaborate with Global Affairs Canada, to mentor, enable and create opportunities for the Jamaica Defence Force to grow as a Special Operations Forces leader to more effectively combat trans-regional threats in the Caribbean Basin. Other regional partners include Belize, the Bahamas, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana.
  • Operation ARTEMISEndnote 62: The CAF mission to combat terrorism, and contribute to the security and stability of the waterways in the Middle East, which encompass some of the world’s most important shipping lanes. Participation is through a multinational maritime partnership, the Combined Maritime Forces, which exists to uphold the International Rules-Based Order by countering illicit non-state actors on the high seas. Canada's role has primarily been under Combined Task Force (CTF)-150 conducting Maritime Security Operations. DND and CAF deployed 31 military personnel and one civilian Policy Advisor with CTF-150 Headquarters. Although there were no ships or aircraft deployed during FY 2020–21 in support of Operation ARTEMIS, in January 2021 a RCN officer assumed command of the multinational efforts. The mandate has been extended until July 2021.
  • Operation CALUMETEndnote 63: Canada's support to the Multinational Force and Observers. The Multinational Force and Observers is an independent peacekeeping operation in the Sinai Peninsula, with Canadian participation since September 1985. FY 2020–21 was a lower tempo year for Operation CALUMET due to the restrictions on movement put in place to protect the force from COVID-19. However, CAF members still filled the high profile positions of Chief Liaison and Force Sergeant Major within the Multinational Force and Observers. In addition, CAF personnel filled senior positions in operations, training, air movements, and military policing sections. The Multinational Force and Observers had a reduced ground surveillance posture in FY 2020–21 but still conducted several hundred air missions along with construction of a large expansion of one of its Remote Sites used for verification of the Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty.
  • Operation FREQUENCEEndnote 64: The CAF supports France under Operation FREQUENCE. Using military aircraft, the CAF moves French military equipment and personnel between France and the Sahel region of Africa. The Operation FREQUENCE flights support global efforts in the region against terrorism; doing so helps make the region more secure and stable. It also helps with: security and stability across the globe, strengthening the Canada-France partnership, and ultimately enabling interoperability between the two armed forces. Operation FREQUENCE had six deployments, transporting over 135 424 kilograms (approximately 299 000 pounds) of cargo by CC-17 Globemaster and CC-130J Hercules aircraft.
  • Operation FOUNDATIONEndnote 65: The CAF contribution to coalition efforts, led by the United States, to counter terrorism. The CAF contribution included personnel deployed to a number of United States headquarters, including:
    • United States Air Forces Central in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates;
    • United States Naval Forces Central in Bahrain; and
    • Combined Maritime Forces in Bahrain.

Members served as key staff within these host headquarters and provided an important link between the headquarters and the CAF.

  • Operation GLOBEEndnote 66: CAF members are sometimes asked to help other Government of Canada departments and agencies with various tasks or to participate in Government of Canada activities abroad. When these tasks involve working outside of Canada, CAF members often deploy under Operation GLOBE. During the first iteration of this mission, Canada provided five flights that repatriated 870 Canadians from Asia at the onset of the COVID-19 global pandemic. This required forty CAF medical personnel to ensure the safety and health of the repatriated Canadians. The second iteration of this mission was in response to the United Nations’ request for transport of COVID-19 related humanitarian and medical supplies, on behalf of the World Food Programme and the World Health Organization; the CAF provided a CC-17 Globemaster aircraft and associated crew for airlift support out of Panama Pacifico Airport between July and August 2020. The RCAF flew seven sorties delivering over 82 500 kg of medical supplies to seven countries in Central America. The third iteration of the mission resulted in Canada repatriating six Canadians from the embassy staff in Ukraine to Canada during Ukraine’s first wave of the COVID 19 global pandemic.

  • Operation ILLUMINATIONEndnote 67: This operation employed CAF personnel in Iceland to provide surveillance support while their country’s air surveillance radars underwent scheduled maintenance and upgrades. From the beginning of February 2020 to May 2020, the CAF deployed personnel and a mobile air surveillance radar system via strategic airlift to Iceland. The CAF’s support ensured uninterrupted long-range radar coverage for Iceland. The radar system covered the Greenland-Iceland-United Kingdom gap, which is a strategic transit route of the North Atlantic.
  • Operation IMPACTEndnote 68: The CAF contribution to whole-of-government approach to the Middle East region. This operation complements the work of other Canadian government departments and agencies, such as Global Affairs Canada. Throughout FY 2020–21, the CAF provided capacity-building support to Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon. Key efforts included:
    • Providing Training, Advice, and Assistance to Host Nation security forces in their operations to contain and degrade Daesh insurgency in order to prevent their re-emergence as a significant threat to regional stability;
    • Commanding NATO Mission Iraq (NMI) for a second year, until November 2020. Achievements included a significant repositioning of forces due to COVID-19 and then shifting NMI’s focus from tactical level training to institutional and ministerial focused reform to increase the Iraqi Security Forces’ self-sufficiency. Operation IMPACT also continued its capacity building efforts with the Jordanian and Lebanese Armed Forces, delivering tactical level training to both militaries, with emphasis placed on: enhancing their logistics; Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear defence; and female engagement capabilities. This complemented our existing efforts in the Global Coalition against Daesh by strengthening Iraqi Security Forces and Iraqi military education institutions to help prevent the resurgence of Daesh;
    • Completing the construction of 65 km of border road and the rehabilitation of 11 watch towers along Jordan’s northern border with Syria. Both efforts will allow the Jordanian Armed Forces to better respond to threats in the region;
    • Conducting gender integration activities with the Armed Forces of Iraq, Lebanon, and Jordan that included specialized training, leadership development and force integration for an all-female Jordanian infantry platoon; and
    • Keeping Canadian Training and Assistance Teams in place during the COVID-19 pandemic, making Canada a leader in restoring in-person training. This was especially important in Lebanon, where Canadian support to developing institutional technical and logistical capability of the Lebanese Armed Forces contributes to sustainable border security and internal stability.
    • Other significant Operation IMPACT contributions in FY 2020–21 were:
      • An Air Task Force supporting Coalition efforts in the region. Canada’s two CC-130J Hercules aircraft provided a significant boost to Coalition Force efforts in the Middle East. In total, Canada’s CC-130J Hercules aircraft moved over 1 133 890 kilograms (approximately 2.5 million pounds) of cargo and over 4 500 passengers; and
      • The CAF maintained a regional command and support hub in Kuwait to enable operations in multiple countries in the Middle East, which serves to amplify Canada’s standing as a relevant and reliable partner.
  • Operation KOBOLDEndnote 69: The CAF mission in Kosovo. It is Canada’s contribution to the Kosovo Force: a NATO-led peace-support operation. The CAF provided a five personnel Task Force in support of Kosovo Force and logistics support.
  • Operation NABERIUSEndnote 70: Collaborated with Global Affairs Canada, to train, mentor and enable Nigerien Military and Security Forces to address terrorism within Niger and regionally as part of pan-Sahel and pan-African efforts.
  • Operation NEONEndnote 71: The CAF contribution to the multinational efforts to enforce UNSCR 2397 sanctions against the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. In addition to the three staff officers embedded within the Enforcement Coordination Centre on United States Ship (USS) Blue Ridge, the CAF contributed HMCS Winnipeg and a CP-140 Aurora aircraft for eight weeks on Operation NEON. They observed over 300 vessels, including approximately 100 ship to ship transfers (13 observed by frigate, the remainder by CP-140 aircraft). Evidence collected by CAF assets supported Global Affairs Canada-led diplomatic efforts to tackle UNSCR 2397 sanctions-evasion activity for sanctions currently imposed against the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea for their illicit Weapons of Mass Destruction program.
  • Operation OPEN SPIRITEndnote 72: The annual and collaborative operation between Canada, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia with an aim to clear explosive remnants of war in the Baltic Sea was deferred due to the travel restrictions from COVID-19 for FY 2020–21.
  • Operation PROJECTIONEndnote 73: Includes both Operation PROJECTION (Indo-Asia Pacific) and Operation PROJECTION (Africa) and is the CAF naval forward presence operation that contributes to global and regional stability, enhances regional partnerships, and promotes Canada as a reliable and credible regional partner. Through multilateral partnerships, the CAF promoted the Rules Based International Order and international law while enabling Government of Canada defence diplomacy throughout each region.
    • Upon completion of Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC), HMCS Winnipeg transitioned to Operation PROJECTION (Indo-Asia Pacific) until December 2020, which included an Operation NEON window, a South China Sea presence, and the conducting of Exercise KEEN SWORD to increase allied interoperability between Canada, United States Forces, and Japan Self-Defence Forces;
    • HMCS Calgary conducted a South China Sea presence late in the period covered by this report; and
    • Operation PROJECTION West Africa was executed to a high degree of effectiveness notwithstanding challenges imposed by COVID-19 namely, the gravity of its effect on interfacing with partner nations. Operation PROJECTION Africa was paused in 2021 due to COVID-19 restrictions, which precluded a viable community relations/diplomatic shore program.
  • Operation PROTEUSEndnote 74: Canada’s contribution to the Office of the United States Security Coordinator (USSC). During FY 2020–21, CAF members continued to serve with the USSC team as part of Canada’s military task force in Jerusalem. CAF members on Operation PROTEUS filled key USSC positions and were integral team members. Task Force Jerusalem aims to contribute to regional stability and the furtherance of the Middle East Peace Process by:
    • Demonstrating Canada’s support for the Palestinian people;
    • Facilitating security coordination between the Israeli Defence Force and the Palestinian Authority Security Forces; and
    • Contributing to the professionalization of the Palestinian Authority Security Forces through institutionally-focussed reform activities.
  • Operation REASSURANCEEndnote 75: The CAF’s enduring contribution to the NATO assurance and deterrence mission in Central and Eastern Europe. FY 2020–21 highlights include:
    • Operation REASSURANCE Land Task-Force: Canada, through the CA continued its contribution to NATO’s enhanced Forward Presence (eFP) Battle Group in Adazi, Latvia, as the Framework Nation. Noteworthy accomplishments included Canadian validation of two Multinational Battle Groups in theatre. Furthermore, Canada continued work on the Multi-National Headquarters project;
    • Operation REASSURANCE Maritime Task-Force: The RCN continued to contribute warships on a persistent rotational basis to NATO, including HMCS Fredericton (January-July 2020), HMCS Toronto (July-December 2020), and HMCS Halifax (January-July 2021). In January 2021, the CAF assumed command of Standing NATO Maritime Group One from his Flagship HMCS Halifax; and
    • Operation REASSURANCE Air Task-Force: The RCAF provided intermittent fighter aircraft support in Romania. Training events and exercises included BLUE BRIDGE, ALLIED SENTRY, THRACIAN VIPER, ADEX with HMS DRAGON and USS DONALD COOK. Of note, Five Air Task-Force – Romania members were awarded the Romanian Air Force Emblem of Honour. During FY 2020-21, 479.8 hours were flown through 291 sorties conducted over 70 days.


A Canadian Light Armoured Vehicle 6.0 manoeuvres alongside a Polish tank during Exercise WOLVERINE STRIKE, an Operation REASSURANCE eFP Battle Group training event in Latvia in March 2021.

(Photo credit: Subteniente Juan Delgado Garnacho)

  • Operation UNIFIERFootnote 76: The CAF mission to provide military training and capacity building to the Security Forces of Ukraine personnel to support Ukraine’s efforts to maintain sovereignty, security and stability. Under the rubric of the Multinational Joint Commission, Operation UNIFIER focuses on combined arms training at battalion and brigade levels and on individual training and personnel military education with a focus on junior officers and Non-Commissioned Officer development. This consists of mentoring Ukrainian Observer Controller Trainers in Combat Training Centres, coaching or training Security Forces of Ukraine trainers in marksmanship, reconnaissance, tactical movement, explosive threat recognition, communication, combat survival, and on developing basic and advanced leadership and ethics courseware in support of officer and Non-Commissioned Officer academies. In addition, naval training components included operational planning, navigation and Officer of the Watch, damage control/ fire-fighting and diving. As a result of COVID-19, a reduced contingent of 60 CAF members was deployed to Ukraine in April 2020. In June 2020, additional CAF personnel were deployed to augment the Joint Task Force – UKRAINE (JTF-U) contingent to 150 members. Finally, back to a full strength of 200 CAF members in November 2020, JTF-U was able to accompany the Security Forces of Ukraine in gradual resumption of training activities and to pursue its mission in Ukraine while following strict health and safety protection and prevention measures against COVID-19.
    • The CAF provided training to 758 members of the National Guard of Ukraine and 5 681 members of the Armed Forces of Ukraine through 90 course serials;
    • The CAF has trained more than 24 535 Security Forces of Ukraine candidates (total as of 31 March 2021) via 510 course serials spanning all domains of activity since the start of the mission in September 2015; and
    • Defence worked in close collaboration with Global Affairs Canada on strategic level initiatives that support Ukraine at the institutional level. These initiatives will supplement the tactical-level training and capacity building provided by the CAF under Operation UNIFIER. DND and the CAF will continue to develop international engagements with a view to advancing Canada’s broader foreign and defence policy objectives to achieve a more peaceful and stable world.
    • Operation REASSURANCE Maritime Task-Force: The RCN continued to contribute warships on a persistent rotational basis to NATO, including HMCS Fredericton (January-July 2020), HMCS Toronto (July-December 2020), and HMCS Halifax (January-July 2021). In January 2021, the CAF assumed command of Standing NATO Maritime Group One from his Flagship HMCS Halifax; and
    • Operation REASSURANCE Air Task-Force: The RCAF provided intermittent fighter aircraft support in Romania. Training events and exercises included BLUE BRIDGE, ALLIED SENTRY, THRACIAN VIPER, ADEX with HMS DRAGON and USS DONALD COOK. Of note, Five Air Task-Force – Romania members were awarded the Romanian Air Force Emblem of Honour. During FY 2020-21, 479.8 hours were flown through 291 sorties conducted over 70 days.

CAF chaplains deployed on Operation REASURRANCE and Operation UNIFIER utilized their Religious Leader Engagement training to establish relationships with Indigenous religious and community leaders. This enhanced positive host nation-CAF ties, increased CAF member resilience, and facilitated local humanitarian efforts in accordance with “Called to Serve (2020-2030), The Royal Canadian Chaplain Service Spiritual Resilience and Well-Being Strategy.”

The CAF continued to play an important role in United Nations peacekeeping by contributing to broader government objectives and whole-of-government efforts to prevent conflict, stabilize fragile situations and combat threats.

  • Operation PRESENCEFootnote 77: The CAF’s contribution to the United Nations Mission in Mali, and a Tactical Airlift Detachment in Entebbe, Uganda. Operation PRESENCE is part of the Government of Canada’s peace operations strategy, which includes the commitment of high-value military capabilities to United Nations peacekeeping missions.

    In July 2020, the CAF received the authority to extend by 12 months its episodic support to United Nations Peacekeeping operations in Africa for a second year under Operation PRESENCE (Uganda).

    The CAF provided episodic airlift support based out of Entebbe, Uganda, and Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO). The Tactical Airlift Detachment consisted of one CC-130J Hercules aircraft, operated and supported by 27 CAF members. Multiple sorties were flown throughout FY 2020-21 into Entebbe, Uganda, to assist with transporting troops, equipment and supplies to MONUSCO and to the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). The size and scope of the deployed force was limited due to COVID-19. The CAF also contributed a five-person Task Force to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) Headquarters in Bamako and assigned two Canadian Army personnel to support the UK Long Range Reconnaissance Group based in Gao.

  • Operation CROCODILEFootnote 78: A second Canadian mission in support of MONUSCO. Currently, nine CAF members are deployed. They serve in two locations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with one element is in MONUSCO headquarters in Kinshasa, and the second at headquarters in Goma. These CAF members are experts in military operations, liaison, and training. They support the MONUSCO mandate, which includes:
    • Protecting civilians;
    • Working with the local government and international agencies to help the Congolese government improve justice and security;
    • Monitoring an arms ban; and
    • Providing logistical support to assist in national and local elections.
  • Operation SNOWGOOSEFootnote 79: The CAF contribution to the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus. It is one of Canada’s longest-running missions in another country. It dates from the beginning of United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus in 1964. The CAF now sends one officer to support the operations staff at the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus headquarters in Nicosia on a yearly rotational basis.
  • Operation SOPRANOFootnote 80: The CAF’s engagement in the UNMISS. UNMISS was established on July 9, 2011. It was formed under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1996 (2011). The CAF supported this mission by sending 10 personnel.
  • Operation JADEFootnote 81: Canada’s contribution to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization. Operation JADE is Canada’s longest-running overseas commitment. The first CAF members to serve with United Nations Truce Supervision Organization were sent in 1954. There are four officers deployed on Operation JADE in the Golan Heights, Lebanon and periodically in Syria. They serve as United Nations Military Observers. A senior CAF officer also joins the task force when requested by the United Nations. That officer serves in one of several leadership positions in the region.
  • Elsie InitiativeFootnote 82: Delays in the completion of the barrier assessment for the Ghanaian Armed Forces (GAF) continued throughout most of the reporting period; the barrier assessment process identifies the prevalence of specific barriers to uniformed women’s participation in peace support operations. Advance results from the GAF’s barrier assessment were received by the Government of Canada in December 2020. The results were analysed to determine potential options that could be developed in order to address the key barriers facing women in the GAF identified in the report. Although it was initially envisioned that CAF would provide train and assist teams to deliver “hands and feet” training to GAF, the nature of the identified deficiencies did not lend themselves to this sort of training. Key gaps identified in the context of the GAF were more in the policy and gender mainstreaming areas (i.e. cultural and structural barriers). Planning continues in order to identify the appropriate mechanism and activities for bilateral assistance to GAF to address these gaps. Engagements with GAF are being conducted to inform the development and prioritization of potential training activities. CAF has also undertaken an internal barrier assessment process, for which data collection was conducted in the reporting period. The final results of CAF’s barrier assessment are expected in fall 2021.

In accordance with the United Nations’ Uniformed Gender Parity Strategy 2018-2028, the United Nations has set a target of 25 percent female representation in the United Nations Military Observer and Staff Officer positions by 2028. This will be achieved by increasing the percentage of women on United Nations missions in these roles by one percent each year. The CAF achieved the targeted 17 percent for FY 2020–21.

As a result of COVID-19 and in consultation with Bangladesh, the handover of the Chair of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Chiefs of Defence (CHODs) Network was delayed until later in 2021. The second year as Chair allowed the Chief of Defence Staff to further the work initiated in 2019 in strengthening the network.

The WPS CHODs Network that was created in 2017 by the United Kingdom, Canada, and Bangladesh, is to provide a collaborative platform for the CHODs who have committed to advancing the WPS agenda within their defence force. The Network supports members’ efforts to build internal capacity and expertise. By sharing experiences, lessons learned and best practices, members will enhance their shared understanding and knowledge, thereby increasing their ability to move the WPS agenda forward within their own defence force. DND and the CAF’s focus has been on strengthening and formalizing the Network, expanding its membership, and increasing awareness and nations’ commitment to advance the WPS agenda. To date, we have made significant progress towards achieving these goals, through the following activities in FY 2020-21:

  • The membership of the WPS CHODs Network has grown to 56 nations and continues to receive positive responses from the more than 40 additional nations we have invited to join;
  • A WPS CHODs Network Charter was developed and distributed to all member nations to formalize and strengthen the commitment of member nations to the implementation of the tenets of the WPS agenda. It will record nation’s pledges and provide an opportunity for yearly updates on progress during annual meetings; and
  • DND and the CAF published a digital and portable training package to be made available to all United Nations countries in the spring of 2021 in order to increase awareness and capacity to include gender perspectives in military operations plans and missions.

Following the crash of Ukrainian Flight PS752 in Iran, DND contributed significantly to the analysis conducted by the government forensic team, which provided an assessment of the factors and events that led to the tragedy.

DND and the CAF, working closely with its Five Eyes Partners, also delivered authoritative products and assessments as the COVID-19 pandemic evolved. These timely products provided situational awareness in support of senior leadership decision-making, planning and conduct of CAF activities.

In addition to the major operations delivered in FY 2020–21 noted under each Departmental Result, a number of key achievements marked the FY with regard to improving operational capabilities in Defence.

For example, in response to the commitment to develop a Global Integration capability to advance the CAF’s pan‑domain understanding of the operating environment, the following results were achieved during FY 2020-21:

  • Joint Intelligence, Space, and Cyber briefing integrated into regular Command activity in order to synchronize current and future operations;
  • Improving Comprehensive Preparation of the Operational Environment estimates through better integration of cyber, space and information domain estimates; and
  • The CAF is on track to leverage space, cyber, and information domain capabilities to close intelligence gaps as these domains mature.

Results achieved

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018–19 Actual results 2019–20 Actual results 2020–21 Actual results
1.5 Canadian Armed Forces contribute to a more stable and peaceful world % of international operations that meet stated objectives 100% 31 March 2021 93% 98% 95%Note *
Extent to which the Canadian Armed Forces is effective in international operations The Canadian Armed Forces is effective in the conduct of international operations 31 March 2021 Not Available
New qualitative indicator as of 2019-20
This is a qualitative indicatorNote ** This is a qualitative indicatorNote ***

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)

2020–21 Main Estimates 2020–21 Planned spending 2020–21 Total authorities available for use 2020–21 Actual spending (authorities used) 2020–21 Difference (Actual spending minus Planned spending)
1,075,628,685 1,080,817,402 1,342,474,789 1,028,857,684 (51,959,718)

Human resources (full-time equivalents)

2020–21 Planned full-time equivalents 2020–21 Actual full-time equivalents 2020–21 Difference (Actual full-time equivalents minus Planned full-time equivalents)
2,860 2,156 (704)

Financial, human resources and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBaseEndnote 85.

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