ARCHIVED – Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada – Performance results by LINC level

LINC Literacy Population

Clients In Training

Table 3: Number of LINC Literacy Clients by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 95 119 115 148 161 156
Newfoundland 41 43 46 57 59 60
Nova Scotia 20 24 15 27 36 43
Prince Edward Island 4 2 0 0 15 15
New Brunswick 30 50 54 64 51 38
Ontario 1,228 1,421 1,482 1,677 2,196 2,231
Saskatchewan 64 107 91 104 105 79
Alberta 338 415 365 411 495 507
Total 1,725 2,062 2,053 2,340 2,957 2,973

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Over the 2003-2008 period, an average of approximately 2,350 clients took LINC literacy training annually. The annual total peaked at 2,973 in 2008 and lowest numbers were recorded in 2003 at 1,725.
  • Ontario accounts for the majority of clients in LINC literacy training with an average of 72 percent of clients at this level during the 2003-2008 period.  Alberta accounts for approximately 18 percent of clients during the same period with the other provinces accounting for the remaining 10 percent.
  • With the exception of Ontario and Alberta, the distribution of LINC literacy clients across the provinces has remained relatively consistent during the 2003-2008 period.  Ontario’s percentage of the total population taking literacy classes has increased from 71 percent in 2003 to 75 percent in 2008. In contrast, Alberta’s percentage has dropped from 20 percent in 2003 to 17 percent in 2008.

Table 4: Number of LINC Literacy Clients in Training by Immigrant Category, 2003-2008

Immigrant Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family 670 719 648 795 1,092 1,094
Skilled Workers 133 120 140 151 170 131
Other Economic 64 94 129 163 216 238
Refugees 839 1,097 1,113 1,194 1,427 1,463
Other / Unknown 19 32 23 37 52 47
Total 1,725 2,062 2,053 2,340 2,957 2,973

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • During the 2003-2008 period, refugees made up the majority of LINC literacy clients in training with an average of roughly 1,200 clients per year, or 51 percent of total clients.
  • Family class immigrants account for 36 percent of LINC literacy clients and skilled workers 6 percent during the 2003-2008 period.

Clients with Completed Training

Table 5: Number of LINC Literacy Clients by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 37 46 47 56 49 45
Newfoundland 13 21 24 34 25 23
Nova Scotia 8 2 3 4 8 11
Prince Edward Island 2 0 0 0 5 0
New Brunswick 14 23 20 18 11 11
Ontario 258 345 397 404 548 534
Saskatchewan 13 27 22 20 8 12
Alberta 147 176 159 188 189 191
Total 455 594 625 668 794 782

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Over the 2003-2008 period, an average of 655 clients completed LINC literacy courses annually. The annual total peaked in 2007 at 794 clients and lowest numbers were recorded in 2003 (455).
  • As might be expected, Ontario accounts for the majority of LINC literacy completions with an average of 63 percent of all completions during 2003-2008.  Alberta accounts for an average of 27 percent of completions during the same period.
  • The distribution of clients who completed LINC literacy has changed during the 2003-2008 period – the percentage from Ontario has increased from approximately 55 percent in 2003 to 68 percent in 2008. In contrast, the percentage of clients who completed LINC literacy in Alberta has decreased from 32 percent in 2003 to 24 percent in 2008.

Table 6: Number of LINC Literacy Clients Completions by Immigrant Category, 2003-2008

Immigrant Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family 157 208 202 210 284 260
Skilled Workers 50 46 54 48 70 51
Other Economic 26 25 35 47 59 56
Refugees 219 308 328 355 364 405
Other / Unknown 3 7 6 8 17 10
Total 455 594 625 668 794 782

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • The majority of those who complete LINC literacy are refugees with an average of 350 (or 51 percent of total completions) clients during the 2003-2008 period. During the same period, approximately 200 family class immigrants (or 34 percent of total clients) completed LINC literacy courses while skilled workers and other economic immigrants made up 8 percent and 6 percent of completions, respectively.
  • It is not surprising to see the low numbers of skilled workers in this LINC level given the point allotment skilled worker principal applicants obtain for official language knowledge. Current data suggests LINC literacy clients in the skilled worker category are dominated by spouses and dependants (who are not points tested). Further data manipulation of the skilled worker category is required to obtain a specific split of principal applicants and spouses and dependents
  • Roughly 33 percent of clients who were in LINC literacy training completed a LINC literacy course during the 2003-2008 period. Completion rates for refugees were slightly above average at 36 percent while they were a little lower for family class immigrants at 30 percent.

Average Hours Taken to Complete LINC Literacy Courses

  • As shown in the table below, on average, a LINC literacy client spends 384 hours in class to complete the course, ranging from a low of 258 hours for skilled workers to a high 467 hours for refugees.

Table 7: Average Hours Taken to Complete a LINC Literacy Course by Immigration Category, 2005-2008

Immigration Category NL PE NS NB ON SK AB Canada
Family 108 n/a 231 338 324 287 252 305
Skilled Workers n/a n/a n/a 106 293 447 180 258
Other Economic 122 200 422 149 372 175 221 294
Refugees 330 200 367 180 512 575 438 467
Other / Unknown n/a n/a 489 95 474 n/a 166 388
Total 316 200 363 184 395 539 350 384

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Among all immigration categories, refugees spend 83 more hours, or 22 percent more time, in class to complete a course than the average for all immigrants (384 hours). Family class immigrants and other economic immigrants spend 305 and 258 hours, respectively.
  • Across provinces, the average number of hours ranges from a low of 184 in New Brunswick to a high of 539 hours in Saskatchewan. Given the large number of completions in Ontario and Alberta, it is not surprising that the national average (384) is close to the averages for Ontario (395) and Alberta (350).
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