ARCHIVED – Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada – Performance results by LINC level

LINC Level 4 Population

Clients in Training

Table 23: Number of LINC Clients in Level 4 Training by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 198 208 193 223 340 382
Newfoundland 41 41 35 63 50 49
Nova Scotia 138 134 114 129 181 247
Prince Edward Island 9 21 35 31 39 10
New Brunswick 10 12 9 0 70 76
Ontario 12,710 13,004 11,952 11,169 11,154 11,148
Alberta 1,253 1,673 1,900 1,934 2,084 1,900
Saskatchewan 75 103 130 103 114 92
Total 14,236 14,988 14,175 13,429 13,692 13,522

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • On average, 14,000 immigrants attended LINC 4 courses per year during 2003-2008. Among those immigrants, nearly 12,000 or 85 percent are in Ontario, followed by an average of 1,800 clients in Alberta, representing 13 percent of clients in LINC 4 training.
  • The number of Ontario clients has declined since 2003. Its share of LINC 4 clients in training has dropped from 89 percent in 2003 to 82 percent in 2008. In contrast, during the same period, the share of Alberta clients in LINC 4 increased 5 percent, from 9 percent in 2003 to 14 percent in 2008.
  • The trends of provincial shares of LINC 4 clients over time, once again, reflect the changes in trend of landing destinations among new immigrants since 2003. A decreased proportion of newcomers have landed in Ontario compared to earlier landing cohorts, while an increased share of immigrants choose Alberta as their destination to land.

Table 24: Number of LINC Clients in Level 4 Training by Immigrant Category, 2003-2008

Immigrant Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 3,318 3,870 3,831 3,788 4,089 4,110
Skilled Workers 8,697 8,271 7,502 7,019 6,578 6,084
Other Economic 463 530 518 530 726 856
Refugees 1,634 2,111 2,103 1,802 1,907 2,042
Other / Unknown 124 206 221 290 392 430
Total 14,236 14,988 14,175 13,429 13,692 13,522

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Skilled workers represent the largest proportion of LINC 4 clients in training for each year during 2003-2008. An average of 7,400 skilled workers participate in LINC 4 training each year over the period from 2003 to 2008, representing 52 percent of all clients in LINC 4 courses.
  • Family class immigrants account for the second largest number of clients in LINC 4 training during 2003-2008. Around 3,800 family class immigrants enroll in LINC 4 courses – representing 27 percent of all clients taking LINC 4 courses.
  • A relatively steady number of refugees take LINC 4 courses over the period from 2003 to 2008. They represent about 14 percent of all clients.
  • The proportion of skilled workers enrolling in level 4 training has dropped 15 percent since 2003. The share of family class immigrants has increased 7 percent during 2003-2008. The share of refugees in LINC 4 training has been quite stable over the same period, except for an initial increase in 2004.

Clients with Completed Training

  • During 2003-2008, an average of 4,900 clients completed a LINC 4 course each year. Of those clients, a vast majority (85 percent) were in Ontario, followed by clients in Alberta (12 percent).

Table 25: Number of LINC Clients Completing Level 4 Courses by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 65 92 66 93 118 148
Newfoundland 14 11 5 25 11 25
Nova Scotia 38 59 33 56 60 88
Prince Edward Island 4 11 23 12 16 4
New Brunswick 9 11 5 0 31 31
Ontario 4,733 4,632 4,053 3,837 3,917 3,822
Alberta 410 474 629 648 757 648
Saskatchewan 21 42 31 23 25 32
Total 5,229 5,240 4,779 4,601 4,817 4,650

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Consistent with the trend over time in provincial distributions of clients in LINC 4 training, the changes in distribution of clients completing LINC 4 courses across provinces since 2003 feature an increased proportion in Alberta and a lower share in Ontario.

Table 26: Number of Clients Completing LINC 4 Courses by Immigrant Category, 2003-2008

Immigrant Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 1,214 1,311 1,206 1,242 1,394 1,395
Skilled Workers 3,284 3,030 2,690 2,553 2,443 2,234
Other Economic 153 157 153 159 248 260
Refugees 545 683 667 574 599 625
Other / Unknown 33 59 63 73 133 136
Total 5,229 5,240 4,779 4,601 4,817 4,650

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Skilled workers account for the majority of clients completing a LINC 4 course. During 2003-2008, about 55 percent of clients with completed LINC 4 courses are skilled workers, followed by family class immigrants (27 percent) and refugees (13 percent).
  • The share of skilled workers completing a course has dropped from 63 percent in 2003 to 48 percent in 2008, a 15 percent decline. In contrast, over the same period, the proportion of family class immigrants with completed courses increases 7 percent.
  • The average overall completion rate for LINC 4 courses is 35 percent during 2003-2008. And completion rates vary by province and immigrant category.
  • During 2003-2008, Atlantic region (an average of 38 percent) and Ontario (an average of 35 percent) have relatively higher completion rates than other regions. Saskatchewan shows the lowest average completion rate (29 percent) over the six-year period.
  • Skilled workers show the highest completion rates for each year during 2003-2008, resulting in an average of 37 percent completion rate over the six years, followed by family class immigrants and refugees (34 percent and 32 percent, respectively).

Average Hours Taken to Complete LINC 4 Courses

Table 27: Average Hours Taken To Complete a LINC 4 Course by Immigrant Category, 2005-2008

Immigrant Category NL PE NS NB ON SK AB Canada
Family Class 292 165 260 362 303 444 369 312
Skilled Workers 125 318 271 273 273 391 357 285
Other Economic n/a 233 264 353 328 429 323 320
Refugees 254 362 268 232 395 512 378 387
Other / Unknown 363 n/a n/a 325 339 400 402 343
Total 246 301 265 332 299 445 364 309

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • It takes 309 hours for a client to complete a LINC 4 course during 2005-2008. The average hours taken to complete a course varies significantly by immigrant category and across provinces.
  • Among all immigrant categories, refugees have to spend the longest time in class to complete a LINC 4 course (387 hours), followed by other economic class immigrants (320 hours) and family class immigrants (312 hours). Overall, skilled workers spend 285 hours, the shortest time to finish a LINC 4 course.
  • As Ontario represents the lion’s share of clients completing a LINC 4 course, the average hours reflect the Canadian numbers. A client in Ontario spends 299 hours on average to complete a LINC 4 course.
  • Clients in Saskatchewan tend to spend much longer time in class to finish a LINC 4 course (445 hours), compared to those in other provinces. Clients in Alberta and New Brunswick also have to spend longer-than-average times to complete a LINC 4 courses (364 hours and 332 hours, respectively).
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