ARCHIVED – Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada – Performance results by LINC level

LINC Level 1 Population

Clients in Training

Table 8: Number of LINC Clients in Level 1 Training by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 199 282 253 302 323 249
Newfoundland 54 45 43 67 45 52
Nova Scotia 78 116 107 122 133 125
Prince Edward Island 17 30 23 42 78 7
New Brunswick 50 91 80 71 67 65
Ontario 7,524 8,055 7,672 7,922 7,556 7,655
Alberta 933 1,029 1,044 1,202 1,463 1,630
Saskatchewan 180 224 234 274 411 318
Total 8,836 9,590 9,203 9,700 9,753 9,852

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Ontario accounts for the majority of LINC clients attending level 1 courses during 2003-2008. Among the average of 9,500 clients enrolling in LINC 1 training over the six-year period, 7,700 clients were in Ontario, representing 82 percent. However, the share for Ontario dropped from 85 percent in 2003 to 78 percent in 2008 while the share of clients in Alberta has increased 6 percent since 2003.
  • The change in the distribution of LINC 1 clients corresponds to the trend of landings across provinces during the same period. The share of new immigrants landing in Ontario has declined from 54 percent in 2003 to 45 percent in 2008. Over the same period, the proportion of immigrants who landed in Alberta has increased from 7 percent to 10 percent.

Table 9: Number of LINC Clients in Level 1 Training by Immigrant Category, 2003-2008

Immigrant Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 4,092 4,370 3,825 4,382 4,327 4,447
Skilled Workers 1,578 1,562 1,727 1,423 1,175 1,011
Other Economic 457 466 551 657 765 842
Refugees 2,628 3,095 3,013 3,045 3,225 3,298
Other / Unknown 81 97 87 193 261 254
Total 8,836 9,590 9,203 9,700 9,753 9,852

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Family class immigrants account for the largest number of clients participating in LINC 1 courses for each year during 2003-3008, followed by refugees and skilled workers. Once again, a large share of skilled workers are selected based on their labour market skills (including language proficiency) and as a result, may be less likely to enroll in lower levels of language training.
  • The share of family class immigrants in LINC 1 training has been stable at around 45 percent since 2003, with a small decline in 2005. 
  • The share of skilled workers taking LINC 1 courses has decreased significantly, from 18 percent in 2003 to 10 percent in 2008. Over the same period, refugees and other economic immigrants have shown modest increases in enrolments in LINC 1.

Clients with Completed Training

  • During 2003-2008, an average of 3,000 immigrants completed a LINC 1 course. The distribution of LINC 1 clients with completed courses across provinces mimics the trend of LINC 1 clients in training.
  • Ontario accounts for the largest number of clients who completed training for each year during 2003-2008, followed by Alberta.
  • The share of Ontario clients with completed LINC Level 1 training has decreased from 83 percent in 2003 to 76 percent in 2008. Over the same period, the share of clients in Alberta has increased 6 percent, from 13 percent in 2003 to 19 percent to 2008.

Table 10: Number of LINC Clients Completing Level 1 Courses by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 80 105 87 114 106 80
Newfoundland 25 20 25 45 28 23
Nova Scotia 29 38 27 37 34 41
Prince Edward Island 9 13 10 13 25 0
New Brunswick 17 34 25 19 19 16
Ontario 2,574 2,732 2,471 2,449 2,148 2,051
Alberta 385 434 437 454 455 514
Saskatchewan 47 95 93 93 132 63
Total 3,086 3,366 3,088 3,110 2,841 2,708

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Family class immigrants show the largest number of LINC 1 clients with completed training among all immigrant categories throughout the six-year period, followed by refugees and skilled workers.
  • Since 2003, the share of skilled workers with completed LINC 1 courses has declined 10 percent, from 23 percent to 13 percent. In contrast, the share of refugees with completed LINC 1 training has increased 6 percent over the same period. Other economic immigrants also show increased numbers of clients completing a LINC 1 courses since 2003.

Table 11: Number of LINC Clients Completing Level 1 Courses by Immigrant Category, 2003-2008

Immigrant Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 1,320 1,493 1,189 1,248 1,161 1,140
Skilled Workers 707 712 758 627 454 358
Other Economic 144 146 174 207 227 218
Refugees 894 990 935 976 939 943
Other / Unknown 21 25 32 52 60 49
Total 3,086 3,366 3,088 3,110 2,841 2,708

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • The overall completion rate has declined since 2003, from about 35 percent to 28 percent in 2008. This trend is evident in every province over the six-year period.
  • The completion rates for LINC 1 courses vary across provinces. Clients in Newfoundland and Labrador and Alberta have relatively higher completion rates than those in Ontario for each year during 2003-2008.
  • Skilled workers have the highest completion rates among all immigrant categories throughout the six years since 2003 (an average of 42 percent for 2003-2008). The completion rates do not vary much among family class immigrants, refugees and other economic class immigrants, sitting at around 30 percent during 2003-2008.

Average Hours Taken to Complete LINC 1 Courses

Table 12: Average Hours Taken To Complete a LINC Level 1 Course by Immigrant Category, 2005-2008

Immigrant Category NL PE NS NB ON SK AB Canada
Family Class 245 241 268 384 366 295 275 351
Skilled Workers 115 n/a 205 273 311 295 250 301
Other Economic 473 255 269 244 423 239 270 382
Refugees 322 398 360 304 499 415 372 459
Other / Unknown n/a n/a 279 318 382 158 227 359
Total 320 333 312 283 397 350 309 379

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • For all LINC 1 clients completing courses during 2005-2008, the average time taken to complete a course is 379 hours.
  • Among all immigrant categories, refugees spend the longest time (459 hours) in class to complete a LINC 1 course, followed by other economic class (382 hours) and family class immigrants (351 hours). In contrast, skilled workers spend the shortest (301 hours).
  • Clients in Ontario spend an average of 397 hours to complete a LINC 1 course, the longest time among all provinces. Given the large share of Ontario clients among all LINC 1 clients, this number drives up the Canadian average hours.
  • Clients in Saskatchewan spend an average of 350 hours during 2005-2008 to finish a LINC 1 course, the second longest duration in class following the 397 hours for clients in Ontario. In contrast, clients in New Brunswick have the lowest number of hours in class to complete a LINC 1 course (283 hours).
Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: