ARCHIVED – Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada – Performance results by LINC level

LINC Level 3 Population

Clients In Training

Table 18: Number of Clients in LINC 3 Training by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 287 299 273 365 426 441
Newfoundland 44 54 34 80 47 52
Nova Scotia 137 129 112 151 187 239
Prince Edward Island 20 22 27 23 36 15
New Brunswick 86 94 100 111 156 135
Ontario 16,692 17,486 16,928 15,761 14,931 14,588
Saskatchewan 178 230 260 226 277 206
Alberta 2,067 2,132 2,416 2,418 2,550 2,766
Total 19,224 20,147 19,877 18,770 18,184 18,001

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • From 2003 to 2008, an average of 19,000 clients enrolled in training for LINC level 3 each year.
  • The majority of clients in LINC 3 are enrolled in training in Ontario (84 percent). Alberta accounts for an additional 13 percent of clients while the other provinces account for the remaining 3 percent.
  • Although Ontario continues to account for the largest share of clients in training, its share has declined since 2003 from 87 percent to 81 percent in 2008. In contrast, Alberta has noted an increase in its share, accounting for 11 percent of clients in training in 2003 and 15 percent in 2008.

Table 19: Number of Clients in LINC 3 Training by Immigration Category, 2003-2008

Immigration Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 5,733 6,341 6,188 6,205 6,389 6,525
Skilled Workers 9,205 8,815 8,756 7,783 6,589 5,932
Other Economic 837 840 886 914 1,178 1,376
Refugees 3,286 3,887 3,777 3,437 3,441 3,556
Other / Unknown 163 264 270 431 587 612
Total 19,224 20,147 19,877 18,770 18,184 18,001

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Skilled workers make up the majority of LINC 3 clients in training at roughly 7,800 per year or 41 percent of clients during the 2003-2008 period. Family class immigrants account for 33 percent of LINC 3 clients while refugees made up 19 percent of clients during the 2003-2008 period.
  • The share of refugees taking LINC 3 training is fairly stable, ranging from 17-20 percent throughout the period. In contrast, skilled workers have noted steady declines in LINC 3 training, falling from 48 percent of LINC clients in 2003 to 33 percent of LINC clients in 2008.

Clients with Completed Training

Table 20: Number of Clients Completing LINC 3 Courses by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 112 115 103 139 150 136
Newfoundland 18 23 12 49 28 25
Nova Scotia 60 61 38 57 63 76
Prince Edward Island 10 13 17 9 20 2
New Brunswick 24 18 36 24 39 33
Ontario 6,240 6,336 5,967 5,269 4,831 4,537
Saskatchewan 45 65 69 51 60 57
Alberta 712 819 923 935 881 864
Total 7,109 7,335 7,062 6,394 5,922 5,594

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Over the 2003-2008 period, an average of 4,600 clients completed LINC 3 courses annually. The annual total peaked at 7,320 in 2004 and hit a low if 5,632 in 2008.
  • As might be expected, Ontario accounts for the majority of LINC 3 completions with 84 percent of all completions during 2003-2008. However, this share is falling over time. Ontario’s share decreases from nearly 90 percent in 2003 to 80 percent in 2008. Contrastingly, in 2008 Alberta accounts for 14 percent of clients, doubling from 7 percent in 2003.

Table 21: Number of Clients Completing LINC 3 Courses by Immigrant Category, 2003-2008

Immigrant Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 1,988 2,173 2,029 1,924 1,936 1,917
Skilled Workers 3,835 3,558 3,554 3,070 2,503 2,160
Other Economic 259 269 291 269 319 342
Refugees 986 1,246 1,118 1,026 998 990
Other / Unknown 41 89 70 105 166 185
Total 7,109 7,335 7,062 6,394 5,922 5,594

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Skilled workers make up the highest number of LINC 3 completions, with an average of 3,100 clients completing courses (or 47 percent of total completions). Family class immigrants average 2,000 completions (30 percent of total completions) and the average for refugees over the period is 1060 (16% of total completions).
  • Skilled workers have the highest completion rates among all categories presented in this analysis. Over 2003-2008, 40 percent of skilled workers who were in LINC training completed a LINC course while the family class (32 percent) and refugees (30 percent) recorded lower completion rates.

Average Hours Taken to Complete LINC 3 Courses

  • As shown in the table below, the average time taken to complete a LINC 3 course is 337 hours; however, there is substantial variance in this average across immigrant category and province.

Table 22: Average Hours Taken to Complete a LINC 3 Course by Immigration Category, 2005-2008

Immigrant Category NL PE NS NB ON SK AB Canada
Family Class 293 178 229 399 337 514 369 342
Skilled Workers 176 n/a 267 566 285 501 357 297
Other Economic 374 231 253 443 360 504 356 357
Refugees 329 317 260 355 440 569 393 425
Other / Unknown 122 n/a 232 135 388 480 298 382
Total 316 273 252 437 330 526 369 337

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Skilled workers spend less time in class to complete a LINC 3 course compared to the national average for all immigrants, with 40 fewer hours in class. In contrast, refugees spend the most time in class to complete a LINC 3 course, with 88 additional hours, or 26 percent more time in class.
  • Clients in Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia take the fewest number of hours to complete a LINC 3 course, while those in Saskatchewan and New Brunswick spend the most time in class to complete a course at this level.
  • The large number of completions in Ontario and Alberta clearly influence the national averages and thus, the average number of hours taken to complete in Ontario (330) and Alberta (369) are very close to the Canadian average (337).
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