ARCHIVED – Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada – Performance results by LINC level

LINC Level 2 Population

Clients in Training

Table 13: Number of Clients in LINC 2 Training by Province, 2003-2008

Region 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 294 315 277 318 363 332
Newfoundland 43 52 40 73 53 52
Nova Scotia 150 136 127 133 154 180
Prince Edward Island 25 34 31 27 47 4
New Brunswick 76 93 79 85 109 96
Ontario 11,222 11,544 10,971 10,846 10,376 10,295
Saskatchewan 159 224 231 228 303 253
Alberta 1,391 1,565 1,622 1,853 2,140 2,068
Total 13,066 13,648 13,101 13,245 13,182 12,948

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Over the 2003-2008 period, an average of 13,200 clients took LINC 2 training annually. The annual total peaked at 13,648 in 2004 and lowest numbers were recorded in 2008 at 12,948.
  • Ontario accounts for the majority of clients in LINC 2 training with 82 percent of clients taking training over the 2003-2008 period. Alberta accounts for 13 percent of clients during the same period with other provinces making up the other 5 percent.
  • The distribution of clients has changed slightly over time with two notable trends emerging. For Ontario, the proportion of clients in training has declined steadily from 86 percent in 2003 to 80 percent in 2008. In contrast, Alberta has noted an increase accounting for 11 percent of clients in training in 2003 to 16 percent in 2008.

Table 14: Number of Clients in LINC 2 Training by Immigration Category, 2003-2008

Immigration Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 5,063 5,468 5,179 5,351 5,505 5,455
Skilled workers 3,788 3,556 3,531 3,305 2,674 2,371
Other Economic 646 611 647 778 913 1,002
Refugees 3,431 3,839 3,569 3,508 3,704 3,737
Other / Unknown 138 174 175 303 386 383
Total 13,066 13,648 13,101 13,245 13,182 12,948

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Family class immigrants make up the majority of LINC 2 clients in training at just over 5,000 per year or 40 percent of clients during the 2003-2008 period. Refugees account for 28 percent of LINC 2 clients while skilled workers were at 24 percent during the 2003-2008 period.
  • The share of refugees taking LINC 2 training is fairly stable, ranging from 26 percent to 29 percent from one year to the next. In contrast, skilled workers have noted steady declines in LINC 2 training, falling from 29 percent of LINC clients in 2003 to 18 percent of LINC clients in 2008.

Clients with Completed Training

Table 15: Number of Clients Completing LINC 2 Courses by Province, 2003-2008

Region 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 93 108 94 128 115 98
Newfoundland 15 25 16 50 22 25
Nova Scotia 49 44 40 53 37 60
Prince Edward Island 11 13 15 9 22 4
New Brunswick 18 26 23 16 34 9
Ontario 4,214 4,271 3,828 3,573 3,251 3,000
Saskatchewan 46 90 84 87 87 70
Alberta 556 671 725 780 859 791
Total 4,909 5,140 4,731 4,568 4,312 3,959

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Over the 2003-2008 period, an average of 4,600 clients completed LINC 2 courses annually. The annual total peaked at 5,140 in 2004 and lowest numbers were recorded in 2008 at 3,959.
  • As might be expected, Ontario accounts for the majority of LINC 2 completions with 80 percent of all completions during 2003-2008. Alberta accounts for 16 percent of clients during the same period with other provinces making up the other 4 percent.
  • As with the training data, the distribution of clients has also changed over time with two common trends emerging. For Ontario, the proportion of clients completing courses has declined steadily from 85 percent in 2003 to 75 percent in 2008. In contrast, Alberta has noted an increase, with 11 percent of clients in training in 2003 and 20 percent in 2008.

Table 16: Number of Clients Completing LINC 2 Courses by Immigrant Category, 2003-2008

Immigrant Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 1,762 1,954 1,777 1,685 1,678 1,582
Skilled workers 1,725 1,575 1,505 1,405 1,067 838
Other Economic 237 226 212 265 312 306
Refugees 1,150 1,321 1,181 1,140 1,124 1,130
Other / Unknown 35 64 56 73 131 103
Total 4,909 5,140 4,731 4,568 4,312 3,959

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Looking at completions by category, family class immigrants make up the highest number of LINC 2 completions with an average of 1,740 clients completing courses (or 38 percent of total completions). Skilled workers average 1,350 completions (29 percent of total completions) and the average for refugees during 2003-2008 is 1,170 (26 percent of total completions).
  • Skilled workers have the highest completion rates among all categories presented in this analysis. Over 2003-2008, 42 percent of skilled workers who were in LINC training completed a LINC course while the family class (33 percent) and refugees (32 percent) recorded lower completion rates.

Average Hours Taken to Complete LINC 2 Courses

  • As shown in the table below, on average, a LINC 2 client spends an average of 368 hours in class to complete a LINC 2 course, ranging from a low of 324 hours for skilled workers to a high of 441 hours for refugees depending on the year.

Table 17: Average Hours Taken to Complete a LINC 2 Course by Immigration Category, 2005-2008

Immigrant Category NL PE NS NB ON SK AB Canada
Family Class 228 330 245 658 350 269 335 346
Skilled Workers 318 n/a 208 676 319 265 347 324
Other Economic 385 295 285 513 414 279 344 396
Refugees 336 631 308 591 462 369 397 441
Other / Unknown n/a n/a 270 530 373 n/a 291 367
Total 331 518 278 556 372 313 359 368

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Among all immigration categories, refugees spend 73 more hours, or 20 percent more time in class to complete a course than the average for all immigrants (368 hours). Family class immigrants and skilled workers spend comparable hours to complete a course (346 and 324 hours, respectively).
  • Across provinces, the average number of hours range from a low of 278 hours in Nova Scotia to a high of 556 for New Brunswick, however it should be noted that these regions have relatively small numbers of clients completing courses. Given the large shares of  completions in Ontario and Alberta, it is not surprising to see the average number of hours for Ontario (372) and Alberta (359) very close to the national average (368).
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