ARCHIVED – Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada – Performance results by LINC level

LINC Level 5 Population

Clients in Training

Table 28: Number of Clients in LINC 5 Training by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 172 195 175 210 211 283
Newfoundland 39 34 9 36 28 35
Nova Scotia 126 153 150 155 147 210
Prince Edward Island 2 8 14 18 29 11
New Brunswick 5 0 2 1 7 27
Ontario 7,403 7,890 7,258 6,866 7,576 7,785
Saskatchewan 30 41 50 35 30 40
Alberta 189 324 302 62 116 298
Total 7,794 8,450 7,785 7,173 7,933 8,406

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Over the 2003-2008 period, an average of 7,900 clients took LINC 5 training annually. The annual total peaked at 8,450 in 2004 and lowest numbers were recorded in 2006 at 7,173.
  • Ontario accounts for the overwhelming majority of clients in LINC 5 training accounting for 94 percent of clients over the 2003-2008 period. Alberta accounts for 3 percent of clients during the same period and clients training in Nova Scotia made up 2 percent of the total.
  • The distribution of clients has not changed that much over the duration of the LINC program with immigrants in Ontario consistently making up between 93 and 96 percent of clients.

Table 29: Number of Clients in LINC 5 Training by Immigration Category, 2003-2008

Immigration Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 1,617 1,933 1,938 1,825 2,170 2,354
Skilled workers 5,121 5,213 4,513 4,121 4,254 4,335
Other Economic 229 259 240 274 355 479
Refugees 762 944 963 805 924 970
Other / Unknown 65 101 131 148 230 268
Total 7,794 8,450 7,785 7,173 7,933 8,406

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Immigrants in the skilled worker category make up the majority of LINC 5 clients in training at close to 4,600 per year or 58 percent of the total during the 2003-2008 period.
  • Family class immigrants account for 25 percent of LINC 5 clients while refugees made up 11 percent during the 2003-2008 period.
  • Skilled workers have noted steady declines in LINC 5 training, falling from 66 percent of clients in 2003 to 52 percent in 2008. Family class immigrants noted increases from 21 percent in 2003 to 28 percent in 2008.

Clients with Completed Training

Table 30: Number of Clients Completing LINC 5 Courses by Province, 2003-2008

Regions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Atlantic Region 39 59 46 70 67 74
Newfoundland 11 14 5 0 6 1
Nova Scotia 22 38 35 58 54 68
Prince Edward Island 1 7 6 12 7 2
New Brunswick 5 0 0 0 0 3
Ontario 2,202 2,542 2,094 1,988 2,566 2,473
Saskatchewan 8 13 23 6 5 3
Alberta 70 124 140 24 34 151
Total 2,319 2,738 2,303 2,088 2,672 2,701

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Over the 2003-2008 period, an average of 2,500 clients completed LINC 5 courses annually. The annual total peaked at 2,738 in 2004 and lowest numbers were recorded in 2006 at 2,088.
  • As might be expected, Ontario accounts for the majority of LINC 5 completions with 94 percent of all completions during 2003-2008. Alberta accounts for nearly 4 percent of clients during the same period and Nova Scotia at 2 percent.

Table 31: Number of Clients Completing LINC 5 Courses by Immigrant Category, 2003-2008

Immigrant Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Family Class 506 607 557 513 723 738
Skilled workers 1,534 1,768 1,391 1,250 1,501 1,483
Other Economic 72 71 61 83 96 123
Refugees 196 273 263 213 279 282
Other / Unknown 11 19 31 29 73 75
Total 2,319 2,738 2,303 2,088 2,672 2,701

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Looking at completions by category, skilled workers make up the highest number of LINC 5 completions with an average of 1,500 clients completing courses (or 60 percent of total completions). Family class immigrants average 600 completions (25 percent of total completions) and the average for refugees during 2003-2008 is 250 (10 percent of total completions).
  • Completion rates are fairly consistent among all categories presented in this analysis with slightly higher completion rates for skilled workers and lower for other immigrants and refugees.

Average Hours Taken to Complete LINC 5 Courses

  • As shown in the table below, on average, a LINC 5 client spends an average of 310 hours in class to complete a LINC 5 course, ranging from a low of 289 hours for skilled workers to a high of 404 hours for refugees.

Table 32: Average Hours Taken to Complete a LINC 5 Course by Immigration Category, 2005-2008

Immigrant Category NL PE NS NB ON SK AB Canada
Family Class 214 240 325 n/a 314 422 301 313
Skilled Workers 98 300 312 n/a 291 392 216 289
Other Economic n/a 326 285 383 353 259 307 336
Refugees 260 315 440 n/a 408 392 331 404
Other / Unknown n/a n/a 280 350 324 n/a 257 323
Total 227 317 333 372 311 393 262 310

Source: iCAMS and HARTs, CIC

  • Refugees spend 94 more hours, or 30 percent more time in class to complete a course than the average for all immigrants (310 hours). Family class immigrants spend slightly more time than skilled workers to complete a course (313 and 289 hours, respectively).
  • Across provinces, the average number of hours range from a low of 227 hours in Newfoundland to a high of 393 for Saskatchewan, however it should be noted that these regions have relatively small numbers of clients completing courses and are influenced to a greater degree by outliers in the data. Given the large number of completions in Ontario, it is not surprising to see the average number of hours for Ontario (311) is very close to the national average (310).
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