Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 2016 – 2017
Multiculturalism from Now and Into the Future
©Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, (2018).
Catalogue No. CH31-1E
On this page
- Foreword from the Minister
- Foreword from Arif Virani, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Canadian Heritage (Multiculturalism)
- The annual operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act
- Part 1: The Multiculturalism program 2016-2017
- Part 2: Implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act across federal institutions
- Equal opportunity to obtain employment and advancement
- Enhance the ability of individuals and communities to contribute to the continuing evolution of Canada
- Promotion of intercultural understanding and respect for diversity
- Collection of diversity data to inform and enable the development of policies, programs, practices and services
- Multilingual capability and use of cultural experts
- Annex A
- Annex B
Foreword from the Minister
I am pleased to present this year’s Annual Report, entitled Multiculturalism From Now into the Future. The design of the report has been changed from previous years to highlight outcomes and results. It also highlights the actions that we have undertaken over the fiscal year 2016–2017 to advance the objectives of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act, which recognizes the importance of preserving and enhancing the multicultural heritage of Canadians and affirms the Government’s commitment to diversity and inclusion.
This year represents an important development: for the first time in 10 years, the Census of Population provided us with long form data on visible minorities and ethno-cultural diversity. These recent statistics point to the increasing cultural diversity in Canada. The Government continues to move forward in creating an environment in which our diversity is acknowledged and celebrated and in which all Canadians enjoy full participation in society and feel a deep sense of belonging to our country. I am proud of our accomplishments from the past year and encouraged by our progress in helping all Canadians build a strong and inclusive society.
The year 2016–2017 also marked the careful planning for Canada 150 by all government partners, a year where all Canadians joined together in their communities to highlight their achievements and to reflect on Canada’s place in the world. 2017 is also a year to continue our work toward reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples so that the next 150 years are marked by respect, cooperation and partnership. The new Canadian History Hall at the Canadian Museum of History, where we finalized the most extensive exhibition on Canadian history ever created, is just one example of the successes that furthered our commitment to multiculturalism.
Diversity and inclusion made up a central pillar of the Canada 150 celebrations. The Government was also proud to support Canadian Multiculturalism Day celebrations in Montréal, Vancouver and Toronto on June 27, 2017. These lively pan-Canadian festivities formed part of Celebrate Canada Days 2017. Furthermore, of the Canada 150 signature and community projects approved as of March 31, 2017, close to 50 percent—or 228 projects—supported the theme of diversity and inclusion.
The Multiculturalism Program had many successes in 2016–2017. We saw the building of a National Holocaust Monument, which honours the memory of the Jewish men, women and children murdered during the Holocaust and the countless other victims of Nazi Germany and its collaborators; we led a promotional campaign on Black History Month entitled “Stories of Courage”, which focused on milestones and remarkable figures in our country’s history, such as Viola Desmond; and we watched Prime Minister Justin Trudeau deliver a formal apology in the House of Commons on the Komagata Maru incident. Other successes included Asian Heritage Month, and of course the multicultural themes of Canada 150.
In a year marked by a rise in hate crimes, including those targeting the Muslim community and the tragic shooting at a Quebec City mosque that claimed the lives of six men while injuring many others, we believe in the renewed importance of supporting our diverse communities and combatting discrimination. That is why we announced a call for proposals under the Projects Stream of the Inter-Action-Multiculturalism Program toward community projects that prioritize working toward the elimination of discrimination, racism, and prejudice. These projects seek to promote diversity and inter-cultural understanding while fostering an integrated, socially-inclusive society.
In the context of Canada 150 celebrations, the Government was proud to support so many projects and initiatives that allowed Canadians to mark this milestone year and appreciate Canada’s inclusivity and our cultural diversity.
This past year was an opportunity to reflect upon our collective journey, while looking to the future with optimism. As you will see in the outcomes and results of this Annual Report, there is much to be celebrated.
Foreword from Arif Virani, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Canadian Heritage (multiculturalism)
As Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Canadian Heritage (Multiculturalism), I am pleased to provide greetings in this year’s Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 2016–2017. This redesigned Report is focused on results based on indicators that allow us to see where we have met our goals in supporting our mandate of preserving and enhancing the multicultural heritage of Canadians.
In my role, I work on engaging with Canadians and promoting multiculturalism across the country. Our progress in helping all Canadians build a strong and inclusive society has been especially evident in the many successes of the Multiculturalism Program throughout the year. Most notably, in a year marked by the mass shooting at a Québec City mosque and a rise in Islamophobia, I am proud of the fact that, as a Government, we dedicated the Multiculturalism Funding in the Interaction program to the eradication of racism, discrimination and prejudice. The response to our call for proposals was overwhelming, demonstrating that we must continue the fight against racism.
From the cross-country celebrations of Canadian Multiculturalism Day to the promotional campaigns for Black History Month and Asian History Month in 2016–2017, the year-long Canada 150 projects celebrating our diversity and the dedication of the National Holocaust Monument, our government has renewed its commitment to multiculturalism, taking into account the changing demographic realities of today and moving toward a positive, inclusive and constructive approach to multiculturalism in the future. This vision includes substantive policies across Government that positively impact the various diverse communities that make up Canada, such as speeding up immigration processing times in the family reunification and spousal sponsorship categories; providing low-income Canadians with computers and subsidized access to the Internet; waiving the Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) fee for caregivers for the elderly and children; indexing the Canada Child Benefit to the cost of living; enhancing the Security Infrastructure Program to provide increased funding to protect places of worship; condemning systemic racism, religious discrimination and Islamophobia in Parliament; and implementing a name-blind pilot project across six government departments to increase diversity in government hiring.
In 2018, Canada will, for the first time, play host to the Parliament of World Religions. We are committed to making further progress on promoting diversity and our multicultural fabric in the upcoming year and beyond.
Canada has a long and strong history of diversity through its founding nations. It is a country characterized by immigrants and immigration, a process that started with First Peoples helping British and French settlers. To recognize our increasing diversity, Canada was the first country to adopt an official multiculturalism policy in 1971. In 1982, multiculturalism was enshrined in Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which states that “this Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canadians”. In 1988, Parliament unanimously adopted the Canadian Multiculturalism Act.
In Canada, we see diversity as a source of strength, not weakness. Our country is strong not in spite of our differences, but because of them.
Statement by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, from his address to the 71st Session of the United Nations General Assembly, September 20th, 2016.
Canada’s Multiculturalism Policy directs the Government of Canada to preserve and enhance multiculturalism by promoting the recognition of Canada’s ethno-cultural diversity:
...the Government of Canada recognizes the diversity of Canadians as regards to race, national or ethnic origin, colour and religion, as a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society and is committed to a policy of multiculturalism designed to preserve and enhance the multicultural heritage of Canadians while working to achieve the equality of all Canadians in the economic, social, cultural and political life of Canada...
The Canadian Multiculturalism Act encourages the full participation of all Canadians in every aspect of Canadian society.
In 2016, the Census long form was collected for the first time in 10 years. The data revealed that Canada has become more ethno-culturally and racially diverse since 2006. Over the years, immigration has enhanced diversity in Canada and has played a key role in helping our country prosper. Today, one in five Canadians is foreign born, and our country is comprised of people from over 250 different ethnic origins.Footnote 1 Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal are still the most immigrant rich cities in Canada.Footnote 2
The ethno-racial and ethno-cultural make-up of the country is changing. The 2016 Census revealed that South Asians, Chinese and Black Canadians are the three largest visible minority communities in Canada. People identifying as visible minorities represent 22.3% of Canada’s population, and 3 out of 10 visible minorities are Canadian born.Footnote 3 The term visible minority refers to persons “who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour” as defined in the Employment Equity Act (1995).Footnote 4 If the current demographic trends persist, it is estimated that visible minorities could represent between 31.2% and 35.9% of the Canadian population by 2036, while non-Christian religious affiliation could increase from 9% in 2011 to between 13% and 16% in 2036 with more pronounced increases in Muslim, Hindu and Sikh faithsFootnote 5 and an increase in those reporting no religious affiliation.
Most Canadians (85%) believe that ethnic and cultural diversity is a value that Canadians share in common to a great or moderate extent.Footnote 6 Although Canadians support the spirit of multiculturalism and see it as one of the country’s most important national symbolsFootnote 7, there is a growing trend and acknowledgement of the challenges faced by visible minorities.Footnote 8 For example, 62% of Canadians reported concerns over a rise in racism.Footnote 9
Statistics also reveal that police reported hate crime motivated by race and/or ethnicity increased by 4% in 2016. Hate crimes targeting the Black population were the most common type of hate crime reported and represented 15% (214 incidents) of all hate crimes motivated by race and/or ethnicity in Canada. Police-reported hate crimes targeting the Muslim population represented 10% (139 incidents), while hate crimes against the Jewish population represented 16% (221 incidents) of hate crime incidents recorded in 2016.Footnote 10
The annual operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act
The Canadian Multiculturalism Act commits federal institutions to implement programs, policies and services that are sensitive and responsive to Canada’s multicultural reality. It also requires the Minister responsible for multiculturalism to table an annual report on the Act’s operation in Parliament. This report will present an analysis of how well federal institutions met their obligations under the Canadian Multiculturalism Act.
The report is divided into two sections:
Part one is a summary of achievements made by the Multiculturalism Program and provides examples of activities demonstrating how the Canadian Heritage Portfolio advanced the principles of the Act between April 1, 2016 and March 31, 2017.
Part two is a summary of how federal institutions met their obligations in implementing the Canadian Multiculturalism Act during the same time period. This section provides a statistical summary of indicators that measures the success of federal institutions at integrating multiculturalism into their policies, programs and service delivery. It also provides a summary of examples which demonstrate best practices, policies, programs and services taking place in federal institutions to respond to the multicultural heritage of Canadians while working to achieve the equality of all Canadians in the economic, social, cultural and political life of Canada.
Part 1: the Multiculturalism program 2016-2017
The multiculturalism program has three objectives:
- To build an integrated, socially inclusive society by promoting intercultural and interfaith understanding; fostering civic memory, pride and respect for democratic values; and, promoting equal opportunity for individuals of all origins;
- To improve the responsiveness of institutions to the needs of a diverse population by assisting federal and public institutions to become more responsive to diversity by integrating multiculturalism into their policy and program development and service delivery; and
- To actively engage in discussions on multiculturalism and diversity at the international level, promoting Canadian approaches to diversity as a successful model while contributing to an international policy dialogue on issues related to multiculturalism.
Four areas of activity are carried out by the Program to deliver on its objectives:
- Grants and contributions – Inter-Action provides grants and contributions funding for events and projects.
- Public outreach and promotion – the Program conducts outreach and educates the public about multiculturalism initiatives such as Asian Heritage Month, Black History Month and Multiculturalism Day to increase awareness, understanding and public dialogue about multiculturalism in Canada.
- Support to federal and public institutions – the Program supports federal institutions to meet their obligations under the Multiculturalism Act and includes the multiculturalism champions network. The network serves as a forum for champions within federal institutions to share with one another challenges, best practices, lessons learned and tools that help implement the Act.
- Domestic partnerships and international engagement – supports Canada’s domestic partnerships and participation in international agreements and bodies, such as the International Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.
A. Inter-action: multiculturalism grants and contributions program
Through Inter-Action, the Multiculturalism Program’s grants and contributions fund, the Government of Canada supports the socio-economic integration of individuals and communities.
As noted in Inter-Action’s 2016-2017 funding guidelines, the program supports:
Projects that encourage positive interaction between cultural, religious, and ethnic communities in Canada and projects that promote the expression of Canadians’ multiple identities. This interaction, through the inclusion and welcoming of diverse Canadians, will help to increase participants’ sense of belonging and attachment to Canada.
Multiculturalism grants and contributions funding is delivered through two distinct funding streams: Projects and Events.
Inter-action projects streamFootnote 11
The Projects component provides funding for nationalFootnote 12 long-term, multiyear projects that support community development and engagement initiatives that foster an integrated, socially-inclusive society. In 2016-2017, a total of $5.4 million was spent in communities across Canada to support Inter-Action Projects.Footnote 13
On February 9, 2017 a new national call for project applications was announced. Funding priority was given to projects that: work towards the elimination of discrimination, racism and prejudice; provide opportunities for youth community engagement; and bring people together through art, culture or sport.Footnote 14
Inter-action events streamFootnote 15
The Events component provides funding to community based events that foster intercultural and/or interfaith understanding, civic memory and pride, and respect for core democratic values. In 2016-2017, a total of $2.4 million was spent in Canadian communities on regional Inter-Action Events.Footnote 16
Inter-Action Projects and Events Highlights of 2016 – 2017:
Examples of events and projects funded in 2016-2017 from different regions of Canada are highlighted below.
Recipient: Sharing our Cultures, Incorporated
Project title: Sharing Our Cultures: Youth without Borders
Location: St. John’s, Newfoundland & Labrador and Kugluktuk, Nunavut
Sharing Our Cultures-Youth without Borders was a national intercultural exchange project which gave Inuit students from Kugluktuk and newcomer students from St. John’s opportunities for interaction and experiential learning about each other’s histories and cultures. The theme for the program was “A moment in our history” where participants between 15 and 17 years of age showcased their cultures and cultural historical moments in a three-day event to the general public and schools. The project contributed to social inclusion and cohesion among diverse communities in Canada.
Recipient: Girls Action Foundation
Project title: Count Me In! A National Intercultural Leadership Program for Young Women
Count Me In! A National Intercultural Leadership Program for Young Women is a four-day, media arts leadership and mentorship program, where young women from different cultural, racial, ethnic, religious communities have the opportunity to gain skills, knowledge and confidence needed to design and implement community arts projects to educate their communities and develop intercultural understanding. Project activities allow youth to address concerns collectively, and empowers them to improve conditions for community members at large. Multi-media exhibits are produced and published online, highlighting exceptional moments in Canadian history.
Recipient: ENSEMBLE for the respect of diversity
Project title: Citizen Fingerprints
Location: Montréal, Quebec, Ottawa, Ontario, Halifax, Nova Scotia and Moncton, New Brunswick
In 2016-2018, ENSEMBLE for the Respect of Diversity was funded to implement the multi-year project “Citizen Fingerprints”. The project is aimed at raising awareness among youth and stakeholders on issues of racism and discrimination. Youth are trained and then mobilized to carry out concrete actions to improve intercultural communication and respect for diversity in their communities. During the course of the project approximately 60 high schools and their students will receive training, develop an action plan and community based project.
Recipient: Canadian Council Of Muslim Women
Project title: Civics Works
The Civics Works project provided civic skills training for ethno-culturally diverse youth aged 18-24 in seven cities. Activities included: civic mentorship program, development of a civic health index, workshops, digital civic journals, and Canadian Civics Expo: a three day national conference showcasing civic achievements of participants. By taking part in the event participants developed increased civic literacy, civic engagement skills, and employment ready skills.
Recipient: The Alrasoul Islamic Society Centre
Event title: Spiritual Diversity Conference 2016
Location: Halifax, NS
The Alrasoul Islamic Society Centre hosted the Spiritual Diversity Conference 2016. The conference aimed to promote greater interfaith and intercultural understanding. Activities included panel discussions on topics such as: the role of women in different faiths, Mi’kmaw, Buddhist and Hindu perspectives on human rights, humans’ relationship with the earth, and empowering youth for positive social change.
Recipient: Canadian Society for Yad Vashem
Event title: National Holocaust Remembrance Day Event, 2016
Location: Ottawa, Ontario
The National Holocaust Remembrance Day Event took place at the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa. The event annually brings together Canadians of diverse backgrounds for a ceremony that honors the six million Jewish victims of the Holocaust and the survivors who rebuilt their lives in Canada. The event includes a workshop among highschool students of varied cultures and faiths from several Ontario and Quebec schools who are brought together, so that they may interact with one another and with Jewish Holocaust survivors. Participants hear Holocaust survivor stories and have an opportunity to apply lessons learned in today’s world, especially regarding the dangers of unchecked intolerance and the importance of compassion for others.
Recipient: Ukrainian Canadian Congress (National Office)
Event title: Capital Ukrainian Festival, 2016
Location: Ottawa, Ontario
The 2016 Capital Ukrainian Festival hosted by the Ukrainian Canadian Congress is a festival that engaged the participation of diverse festival goers in cultural learning activities such as workshops aimed at creating opportunities for interfaith and intercultural dialogue, sharing experiences and making lasting memories. Key activities included discussions on different historical and cultural practices, a film screening, a fashion show, dance and musical performances.
Recipient: Youth Action Network
Event title: Ruckus! Youth Conference
Location: Toronto, Ontario
The Ruckus Youth Conference fostered dialogue around democratic values toward achieving equity and inclusivity, while supporting cross cultural understanding through educational workshops. Forum activities included educational arts-based, action-oriented workshops designed to engage participants in addressing issues such as racism, stereotyping, mutual understanding and relationship-building across cultures.
Recipient: Islamic Social Services Association
Event title: At the heart of human rights is human dignity
Location: Winnipeg, MB
In honour of the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the 25th anniversary of the Manitoba Multiculturalism Act, the Islamic Social Services Association hosted “At the Heart of Human Rights is Human Dignity.” This community forum was designed to help Indigenous, Jewish, Black, Muslim and Lesbian, Gay, Transgender/Two-Spirited, Bisexual, Queer/Questioning (LGTBQ2) communities educate and build bridges amongst each other; and develop a “Community Action Plan” in response to increasing Islamophobia, homophobia, anti-Semitism, xenophobia and anti-Indigenous stereotyping occurring in Canadian society. Through panels of diverse speakers and facilitated conversations, attendees explored how to balance rights when they seem to be in “conflict;” how to preserve human dignity even when we disagree with each other; and how to build bridges of mutual respect when values are at odds.
Recipient: Overture with the arts
Event title: Slam obsidian
Location: Vancouver, British Columbia
The interactive event emphasized understanding between communities, and encouraged participants to share knowledge that demystifies stereotypes about Black Canadians. The event was an educational interactive presentation that toured high schools, and universities in Alberta and British Columbia to raise awareness of the historical contributions made by notable African Canadians. “Slam Obsidian” highlighted the achievements of Canadians such as, Marie Joseph Angelique, Harriette Tubman, Anne Cools, Viola Desmond, Carrie Best, Willie O’ree, Elijah Mccoy, Oscar Peterson, Harry Jerome and Sam Langford.
B. Public outreach and promotion
The Multiculturalism Program undertakes public outreach and promotion activities designed to engage Canadians on issues related to multiculturalism and promote respect for diversity. The 2016-2017 fiscal year saw the full transition of the Multiculturalism Program from the Department of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada to the Department of Canadian Heritage. Asian Heritage Month in May 2016 was one of the last outreach activities to be administered by Immigration, refugees and Citizenship Canada.
In 2016-2017, the following outreach activities and events were delivered under the Multiculturalism Program.
Asian Heritage Month May 2016
In May 2002, the Government of Canada signed an official declaration to designate May as Asian Heritage Month. Asian Heritage Month activities celebrate the rich and diverse contributions of Asian-Canadians to the building and shaping of Canada. Throughout the month, Canadians are invited to take part in events that honour the legacy of Canadians of Asian heritage.
As Minister of Canadian Heritage and the Minister responsible for Multiculturalism, I invite Canadians of all backgrounds to learn about, appreciate and celebrate the exceptional contributions that Canadians of Asian origin have made to our country.
This year's theme of "Celebrating Arts and Culture" gives us a unique opportunity to celebrate our country's vibrant cultural life. From ballet dancer Chan-hon Goh to actor Zaib Shaikh, novelist Shyam Selvadurai, pianist Jon Kimura Parker, filmmaker Deepa Mehta and many others, Asian-Canadian artists have shared their immense artistic talents, inspiring and educating us.
Statement by Minister Melanie Joly in recognition of Asian Heritage Month, May 1, 2016.
In May 2016, the Department of Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada led the Government of Canada’s Asian Heritage Month activities, and presented the theme “Arts and Culture”. A reception was held at the Canadian Museum of Nature in collaboration with the Ottawa Asian Heritage Month Society to celebrate Asian Heritage Month.
The month was dedicated to honouring Asian-Canadian artists and writers who have enriched Canadian arts and culture both internationally and at home. Related activities and educational materials highlighted well-known Asian-Canadian writers, dancers, performers and artists. Educational posters were distributed across the country to teachers, schools, community groups and workplace diversity committees. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada also promoted Asian Heritage Month awareness via email marketing, social media and the Asian Heritage Month website.
Black History Month February 2017
In December 1995 the House of Commons unanimously adopted a motion introduced by the Honourable Jean Augustine, the first Black woman elected to Parliament, to officially recognize every February as Black History Month. The Government of Canada officially celebrated Black History Month for the first time in February 1996.
The aim of Black History Month is to acknowledge the important contribution of Black Canadians to the settlement, growth and development and history of Canada, as well as its diversity. The theme for the Government of Canada’s Black History Month 2017 campaign was “Stories of Courage” and received unprecedented attention at its launch. The theme for Black History Month 2017 highlighted key figures and milestones in Black Canadian history. Activities and materials explored historic milestones such as the 180 Year Anniversary of the Corps of NegroesFootnote 17 and remarkable individuals, such as Viola DesmondFootnote 18, who was jailed and fined in 1946 for refusing to sit in the balcony of the Roseland Theatre in New Glasgow, N.S., and sitting in the area exclusively reserved for white patrons instead.
I urge all Canadians to reflect on the bravery and courage of individuals like Viola Desmond, a prominent Black Canadian businesswoman who changed the course of Canadian history by defiantly refusing to leave a whites only area of a movie theatre in 1946. In recognition of her impact on the civil rights and freedoms movement in Canada, the Government of Canada chose Viola Desmond as the face of Canada’s ten dollar bank note. This year, as we celebrate the 150th anniversary of Confederation, let us never forget the stories of Black Canadians’ courage in the face of intolerance. Diversity is our greatest strength, and we must always continue to build a country that affords equality and opportunity for all.
Statement by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau in recognition of Black History Month, February 1, 2017.
At the request of the Department of Canadian Heritage, Canada’s Parliamentary Poet Laurate, George Elliott Clarke, composed a poem titled “Rollcall” for the Government of Canada’s Black History Month 2017 campaign. The poem is a tribute to Black Canadians and their contributions to the history of Canada.Footnote 19
The Multiculturalism Program worked with a variety of federal institutions and community partners to ensure that the history of Black Canadians was celebrated. Of note is Canada Post’s commemoration stamp which celebrates the historic life and contribution of Mathieu Da Costa, understood to be the first person of African descent to arrive in Canada.Footnote 20
A launch reception was held at the Canadian Museum of Nature to commemorate the 20th Anniversary of Black History Month in Canada.Footnote 21 The Ontario Black History Society was contracted to showcase the Department of Canadian Heritage’s travelling Black history photo exhibit entitled “On the Road North” at various locations during Black History Month 2017. The exhibit was also featured at the launch event.
Celebrating Multiculturalism Day
Canadian Multiculturalism Day provides a special opportunity to celebrate Canada’s diversity and to appreciate the contributions of the various multicultural groups and communities to Canadian society. In 2016 the Department of Canadian Heritage funded a total of 123 Canadian Multiculturalism Day celebrations across Canada through the Celebration and Commemoration Program’s Celebrate Canada component.
For example, “DiverseCity 2016 DiversCité” in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, celebrated Canadian multiculturalism and is one of PEI’s largest, family-friendly, free outdoor events. With tremendous support from the community, federal and provincial funders, and private sector sponsors, this event showcased the talents and contributions of the Island’s ethno-cultural communities through international foods, activities, games, art and crafts, displays, music and performances. In 2016, DiverseCity showcased the cultural talents of over 50 ethno-cultural groups including newcomer and established cultural communities with an attendance of over 18,000 people.
Komagata Maru apology 2016
The Multiculturalism Program supported the Government in delivering on its commitment to recognize and apoligize about the Komagata Maru incident – a tragic event in Canada’s history. The Komagata Maru was a steamship on which a group of citizens of the British India attempted to immigrate to Canada in 1914. The Komagata Maru sailed from Hong Kong to Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1914, carrying 376 passengers from Punjab, British India — they were predominantly Sikh, including some Hindus and Muslims. Twenty-four passengers were admitted into Canada, but the other 352 passengers on the Komagata Maru were denied entry, due to Canada’s “Continuous Journey Law” which placed limitations on South Asian immigration through racially restrictive policies.Footnote 22
On May 18, 2016, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau stood in the House of Commons to deliver a formal apology on behalf of the Government of Canada to the South Asian Canadian community for its role in preventing the passengers from immigrating to Canada.
I apologize, first and foremost, to the victims of the incident. No words can fully erase the pain and suffering they experienced. Regrettably, the passage of time means that none are alive to hear our apology today. Still, we offer it, fully and sincerely. For our indifference to your plight. For our failure to recognize all that you had to offer. For the laws that discriminated against you, so senselessly. And for not formally apologizing sooner. For all these things, we are truly sorry.
Statement by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, from his address to the House of Parliament, May 18th, 2016
C. The Canadian Heritage portfolio
The Canadian Heritage Portfolio, including the Department, works to fulfill its mandate of preserving and enhancing multiculturalism by promoting and recognizing Canadians’ ethno-cultural diversity. It plays a vital role in the cultural, civic and economic life of Canadians and oversees funding programs that promote culture, the arts, heritage, official languages, citizen engagement and participation, youth and sport initiatives and Indigenous languages and cultures. Arts, culture and heritage represent $54.6 billion in the Canadian economy and more than 630,000 jobs in sectors such as film and video, broadcasting, music, publishing, archives, performing arts, heritage institutions, festivals and celebrations.
Canada’s creative and cultural industries provide Canadians with the opportunity to create and explore one another’s diverse stories, histories and shared identities. Stories are shared through various cultural forms, such as books, films, and the performing arts; fostering inclusion, belonging and ultimately strengthening our shared national identity as Canadians. Below provides a snapshot of some of the funding programs Canadian Heritage delivers to communities and illustrates some of the initiatives undertaken by the Department to promote multiculturalism.
Building Communities through Arts and Heritage Fund
The Building Communities through Arts and Heritage Fund provides funding that supports local festivals, community anniversaries and capital projects. The funding allows citizens to engage in their communities through performing and visual arts and increases opportunities for local artists, artisans, heritage performers or specialists to be involved in their community.Footnote 23
The 2016 Toronto Caribbean Carnival provides an example of the types of local initiatives that the Building Communities through Arts and Heritage Fund supports for ethno-cultural communities in Canada. The festival educates and supports the Canadian Caribbean diaspora and helps all communities to come together so that they may develop a deeper understanding about Canada’s Caribbean community through music, dance and street performances.
The Toronto Caribbean Carnival brings together approximately 1,225,000 participants from Canada and around the world and promotes the work of 1,797 local artisans and heritage performers. The festival provides an opportunity for ethno-cultural communities to learn more about one another in an interactive way, helping to strengthen community across differences in ethno-cultural heritages. The 2016 Latincouver Cultural and Business Society’s Carnaval del Sol Festival is another example, which took place in Vancouver, British Columbia and included artisan displays, musical and dance performances. The festival promoted the work of 241 local artists and artisans and engaged over 100,000 people.
Canada Arts Presentation Fund
The Canada Arts Presentation Fund was created in 2001 to give Canadians access to a variety of professional artistic experiences in their communities by providing financial assistance to arts presenters that professionally present arts festivals, performing arts series, and support organizations. The fund supports approximately 600 professional arts festivals and performing arts series, and other activities related to art presentation, in more than 250 cities or communities across Canada. An example of the funding that the Canada Arts Presentation Fund provides to communities is seen in Prismatic Arts Society’s Prismatic arts festival which is a multi-disciplinary festival taking place in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. The festival showcases new work and contemporary interpretations of traditional art forms by culturally-diverse artists from five provinces and abroad.Footnote 24
The Canada Cultural Spaces Fund
In 2016, the federal government announced that it would invest $168.2 million in additional funding to cultural infrastructure in Canada through the Canada Cultural Spaces Fund.Footnote 25The Canada Cultural Spaces Fund seeks to improve the physical conditions for the arts and heritage related to creation, presentation, preservation and exhibition. The Program aims to increase and improve access for Canadians to performing arts, visual arts, media arts, to museum collections and heritage exhibitions. An example of the types of projects that the Program supports can be seen in the funding it has provided to the Nikkei National Museum & Cultural Centre Museum Expansion. Funding will allow the Museum to expand into existing space in the cultural centre, creating additional exhibition space that will improve the curatorial working areas and collection storage spaces which will allow the Museum to display artefacts and information that provide an overview of Japanese-Canadian history.Footnote 26
The Official Languages ProgramFootnote 27
The Official Languages Funding Programs promote French and English in Canadian society and encourage the development of Francophone and Anglophone communities in minority situations. In 2016-2017, the Official Languages Funding Programs supported New Africa, an organization that seeks to promote shows produced by francophone artists in Toronto. The project “Une poésie en mouvement” (Poetry in action) allowed 30 young Francophones to actively take part in the process of producing a musical, from beginning to end. During the project, various artistic expressions workshops were offered to participants by upcoming and established Franco-Ontarian professionals. At the end of the project, the play was performed for the general public and sessions were organized for the audience to speak with the participants about the creative process and themes of the play.
Planning and launch of Canada 150
Administered under the Department of Canadian Heritage, the Canada 150 Fund was designed to create opportunities for Canadians to participate in local, regional, and national celebrations that contribute to building a sense of pride and attachment to Canada. The Canada 150 Fund focused funding on projects that supported four priority areas, including diversity and inclusion and the building of common interests and relationships. Of the Canada 150 Signature and Community projects approved as of March 31, 2017, close to 50% (228 projects), supported the theme of diversity and inclusion.
In 2016-2017, the Canada 150 Fund partnered with Community Foundations of Canada to provide communities across Canada with access to thousands of micro-grants to support local projects, distributed by participating community foundations. Of the more than 1,700 projects approved through this innovative partnership as of March 31, 2017, 953 had a diversity focus, and 663 had an Indigenous focus.
Canada Council for the Arts
The Canadian Commission for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization operates within the auspices of the Canada Council for the Arts. In March 2017, Canadian Commission for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization convened 500 experts from 90 countries in Ottawa to commemorate the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Week for Peace and Sustainable Development, a major international event. Exchanges focused on ways to transform education and encourage investment in programs and initiatives to develop critical thinking on multiculturalism, diversity and inclusion. The Commission also expanded its membership of the Canadian Coalition of Municipalities against Racism and Discrimination which now includes 72 municipalities across Canada. Members endorse four Common Commitments and develop action plans to address racism and discrimination in their communities.Footnote 28
In 2016-2017 the Canada Council for the Arts successfully implemented its Equity Priority Policy into all aspects of the Canada Council for the Arts’ operations including its new funding model which integrates a “Multiculturalism Lens” by prioritizing ethno-cultural and ethno-racial equity-seeking communities.
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
In 2016 the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation introduced its new $7.5-million Breaking Barriers Film Fund. The fund addresses underrepresentation by helping to share stories of communities that have traditionally been unrecognized in the film industry. To date, the Breaking Barriers Film Fund has funded three films in post-production, supported by Telefilm Canada.Footnote 29
Telefilm is dedicated to the cultural, commercial and industrial success of Canada’s audiovisual industry. Through its various funding and promotion programs, Telefilm supports dynamic companies and creative talent in Canada and around the world. In 2016 Telefilm Canada announced that by 2020 it would have a representative and diversified feature film portfolio to better reflect gender, diversity and Canada’s Indigenous communities. An example of the organizations commitment is seen in its Micro-budget Production Program, which supports the development, production, digital distribution, and promotion of a first feature film or web content project. The Program supports emerging filmmakers seeking to produce their first feature-length films and emphasizes the use of digital platforms and developing the films’ potential for distribution and audience engagement.
Canadian Museum for Human Rights
The Museum’s mandate is to “explore the subject of human rights, with special but not exclusive reference to Canada, in order to enhance the public’s understanding of human rights, to promote respect for others, and to encourage reflection and dialogue.”Footnote 30
In March 2017, the Museum launched its new exhibition Our Canada, My Story for Canada’s 150th anniversary. The exhibition uses video vignettes to share the experiences of people working to overcome human rights challenges. This exhibition is meant challenge perceptions, spark reflection about how different and how similar we are as Canadians and to celebrate diversity.Footnote 31
Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21
The Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 aims to inspire and enable Canadians to explore the theme of immigration to Canada. The museum allows participants an opportunity to learn more about the experiences of immigrants and the contributions that they have made to Canada’s culture, economy and way of life.
In celebration of the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (March 21st, 2017), the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 hosted filmmaker Sylvia Hamilton who presented her film, The Little Black School House, the story of segregated schools in Nova Scotia and Ontario to commemorate the day. The film screening was followed by a public discussion with the filmmaker.Footnote 32
Canadian War Museum
In 2016-2017, the Canadian War Museum acquired a photo album created by Michiko “Midge” Ayukawa (née Ishii) when she was a teenager. She and her Japanese-Canadian family were treated as enemy aliens and forcibly relocated during the Second World War. These rare photos add to the Museum’s collection of visual material documenting the experiences of Japanese Canadians during the Second World War and helps Canadians understand how people coped with forced relocation, confinement, the confiscation of property, racism and other mistreatment during and after the war.
D. Domestic partnerships and international engagement
The Multiculturalism Program supports Canada’s role in its implementation of international conventions that are aligned with the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. These international conventions include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The Program supports and engages with the following domestic and international organizations:
Canadian First World War Internment Recognition FundFootnote 33
The Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund is a $10 million Government of Canada endowment established to commemorate and educate Canadians about Canada’s first national internment operations that took place from 1914 to 1920. The Fund supports projects that commemorate and recognize the experiences of ethno-cultural communities affected by the First World War internment in Canada. In 2016 – 2017 the Fund unveiled “the Camps” web-series, an educational series that chronicles the stories and histories of Canada’s 24 concentration camps, from a variety of perspectives. The Fund approved 26 grants aimed at educating Canadians about Canada’s war time measures through, historical exhibits, awareness campaigns, presentations, commemorative plaques and statues, research, symposiums and educational resources.Footnote 34
Canadian Race Relations Foundation
The Canadian Race Relations Foundation was created in 1996 by Parliament, where the Government of Canada acknowledged its unjust treatment of Japanese Canadians during and after World War II. As part of its redress for that treatment, the Federal Government created the Canadian Race Relations Foundation to foster racial harmony and cross-cultural understanding as a means to eliminate racism. The Canadian Race Relations Foundation’s mandate is prescribed in the Canadian Race Relations Foundation Act “to facilitate throughout Canada the development, sharing and application of knowledge and expertise in order to contribute to the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination in Canadian society.”
The Canadian Race Relations Foundation conducted the “Our Canada Project”, a three-year initiative ending in 2017, aimed at developing awareness, understanding and respect for Canadian values and traditions. As part of the Canadian Race Relations Foundation’s project the Urban Agenda: Race Relations and Multiculturalism in Canadian Cities, in 2016-2017 the foundation partnered with 41 groups of diverse backgrounds and mandates across Canada to host three roundtables in Calgary, Halifax, and Toronto. This project brought together approximately 380 participants to discuss issues of racism and multiculturalism in Canadian urban cities.Footnote 35
Global Centre for PluralismFootnote 36
The Global Centre for Pluralism is an independent, charitable organization with a global mandate. By advancing pluralism around the world, the Global Centre for Pluralism helps serve Canada’s interests by deepening understanding about the choices and actions that lead to more peaceful and inclusive societies that value diversity.
To expand the evidence base for pluralism and deepen understanding of the pathways to pluralism, the Centre began publishing its series of 18 “change cases” focused on moments of change in countries in six regions of the world. The research examines significant changes in the way countries manage their diversity, paving a way toward greater inclusion, and asks what lessons can be learned by other diverse societies. The publication series, along with other products from the Centre’s global analysis, will be disseminated online and at global events and conferences through 2017-2018.
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination establishes prohibitions on racial discrimination and provides for the equality of everyone before the law in matters of access to justice and the exercise of all civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.
States are required to eliminate all barriers to the full enjoyment of those rights, without discrimination, and to assure effective protection and remedies for victims of racial discrimination. Canada acceded to the Convention in 1970.
In May 2016, Canada’s twenty-first to twenty-third reports on the Convention were submitted to the United Nations and outlined key federal, provincial and territorial measures that served to implement the Convention domestically. The reports cover the period between February 2012 and May 2016.Footnote 37 At this time, the Department of Canadian Heritage embarked on coordinating Canada’s preparations for its appearance in front of the committee scheduled for August 14 and 15, 2017.Footnote 38
International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance
Canada is an active member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, an intergovernmental organization that promotes Holocaust education, remembrance and research both nationally and internationally. In 2016-17 Canada’s delegation attended two successful international meetings in Romania during which Canada helped forge consensus at the IHRA on significant decisions, including the adoption of a non-legally binding Working Definition of Antisemitism. This definition combined with the IHRA Working Definition of Holocaust Denial and Distortion, adopted during Canada’s 2013 chairmanship, provide two important tools for combatting antisemitism.
Part 2: Implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act across federal institutions
The Minister responsible for Multiculturalism is mandated to promote the implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act in Canada and to support federal institutions in the implementation of the Act. Under the Act the Minister is required to report on the achievements of federal institutions and how they meet the requirements set forth in the Act.
Specifically, Section 3.2 requires federal institutions to:
- ensure that Canadians of all origins have an equal opportunity to obtain employment and advancement in those institutions;
- promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the ability of individuals and communities of all origins to contribute to the continuing evolution of Canada;
- promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the understanding of and respect for the diversity of the members of Canadian society;
- collect statistical data in order to enable the development of policies, programs and practices that are sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of Canada;
- make use, as appropriate, of the language skills and cultural understanding of individuals of all origins; and
- generally, carry on their activities in a manner that is sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of Canada.
Part two of the Annual Report follows the structure of Section 3.2 of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act, which outlines the responsibilities of federal institutions in regards to multiculturalism.
This year, a new report structure and data capturing tool was implemented for the Annual Report on the Implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. Using an indicator approach, the new methodology will allow the Multiculturalism Program to 1) better report on outcomes, 2) better understand and respond to the needs of departments as they implement the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and 3) compare results from year to year to better identify trends and measure progress. Some federal institutional best practices can be found under each indicator and a copy of the reporting tool can be found in Annex B.
The new report structure provides information to Canadians on the achievements of federal institutions as they implement the Multiculturalism Act. The report measures the results of federal institutions and highlights areas where the Program can better support, and provide guidance and expertise to federal institutions on issues related to multiculturalism. The indicators developed provide metrics that are concrete, tangible and will aid the program in analyzing the rate of change evidenced by each institution as they implement the Act. The first year of results will be used to establish a baseline that the Program will follow-up with increased support to federal institutions in the form of training, best practices and expert advice.
For the 2016-2017 reporting period 103 federal institutions provided input to this Report (please see Annex A) which represents a 75% response rate. The number of respondents is higher than what other federal reports have typically received. As a result, the information contained in the Annual Report helps to provide a clearer picture on indicators present in different reports, such as employment equity numbers and promotion of diversity or multiculturalism through events and initiatives.
Equal opportunity to obtain employment and advancement
During the 2016-2017 fiscal year, federal institutions continued to employ a workforce reflective of Canada’s diverse population. Looking across the various indicators, federal institutions not only met the requirements for hiring practices and representation set forth in the Employment Equity Act, they exceeded them by ensuring that characteristics of diversity were implemented in policies, practices and services.
Representation of visible minorities in senior executive positionsFootnote 39
Institutions were asked to report on the proportion of staff in senior-management positions belonging to a visible minority employment equity group. On average, the 103 institutions reported that 7.2% of their staff in senior-management positions self-identified as a visible minority.Footnote 40 Looking at only the institutions mandated to report on Employment Equity as identified in the Financial Administration Act, respondents had on average 8.3% of their senior-management staff belonging to a visible minority group.
This number is slightly lower than the average observed in the 2015-16 Annual Report on Employment Equity in the Public Service, which reaffirms the need to ensure that diverse hiring practices across government are encouraged and promoted.
Institutions with over 500 employees had an average of 8.3% of their senior-management staff belonging to a visible minority group, compared to 6% for institutions with 500 or fewer employees. Many small institutions reported having difficulty achieving higher representation levels for employment equity groups due to low turnover and hiring rates in their institution.
Representation of visible minorities in non-senior management positions
Federal institutions were asked to provide the proportion of staff in non-senior management positions that self-identified as visible minority.
On average, 14% of the institutions’ non-senior management staff identified as visible minorities. This number suggests a rise from last year’s number of 13.6% according to the 2015-16 Annual Report on Employment Equity in the Public Service.
|Average for mandated institution||14.2%|
|employment equity Report 2015-16 average||13.6%|
For non-senior management positions, the divide between institutions identified in the Financial Administration Act as required to report on Employment Equity statistics and those not mandated to report was almost null, a significant change from the senior-management numbers. On the other hand, there is a greater difference between large (500 employees or more) and small institutions for the representation of visible minorities in non-senior management positions than in senior-management positions. For non-senior management positions, representation of visible minorities in large institutions significantly exceeds the representation levels of small institutions.
|Average for Large Institutions (More than 500 employees)||16.9%|
|Average for Small Institutions (500 or less employees)||11.1%|
The numbers obtained for this report confirm the positive trend in hiring members of visible minorities observed in Statistics Canada’s 2016 Demographic Snapshot of Canada’s Federal Public ServiceFootnote 41, signaling that efforts to increase the representation of members of visible minorities in the federal public service have been successful. However, the representation of visible minorities in the public service is significantly better in non-senior management positions versus that of senior-management positions. These results highlight the need for increased measures to ensure the equitable representation and upward progression of visible minorities across occupational groups and levels in the public service.
As observed in the Management Accountability Framework government-wide reportFootnote 42, efforts are made in all institutions to correct the representation level of visible minorities through staffing. The characteristics of institutions (such as, technical positions, language or schedule requirements, size, location, etcetera.) were often mentioned as obstacles to achieving representation of visible minorities in the workforce or in the implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. However, the analysis of over 100 submissions suggests that efforts to support multiculturalism in the workplace depend more on an institution’s culture and priorities, and their efforts at active outreach and recruitment, than on any given characteristics. Things like the size and location of institutions may bring additional complexity in implementing some parts of the Act, but should not prevent institutions from supporting multiculturalism in some capacity. In this regard, many institutions that would appear too small, remote or limited by their mandate to implement the Multiculturalism Act found innovative ways to support diversity and inclusion within their institution and sometimes in their business lines.
Anti-discrimination and anti-racism training
Federal institutions were asked to report on the types of activities implemented to foster a diverse and inclusive workplace.Footnote 43 The Multiculturalism Annual Report requests federal institutions to report on staff that have participated in anti-discrimination and anti-racism training.
Twenty Four percent of federal institutions reported that they had provided anti-discrimination and anti-racism training to their employees. Approximately 49% of them reported that they had provided training to employees where anti-discrimination and anti-racism training was incorporated or was a component of the overall training provided. Federal institutions reported that anti-discrimination and anti-racism training was incorporated in Harassment Prevention, Creating a Respectful Workplace, Orientation/Onboarding, Code of Conduct, Values and Ethics and various armchair discussions provided by the Canada School for the Public Service. Of the 103 responding institutions, 27% reported that they had not provided anti-discrimination and anti-racism training.
|Organizations that have provided anti-discrimination and anti-racism training to employees||25||24%|
|Organizations that have provided training to employees where anti-discrimination and anti-racism is incorporated into the training||50||49%|
|Organizations where anti-discrimination and anti-racism training was not provided||28||27%|
|Total responding departments||103||100%|
Federal institutions which responded that they had provided anti-discrimination and anti-racism training outlined that they had facilitated partnerships with public institutions and community institutions where training was provided online and in workshop formats.
In the submissions, federal institutions expressed an interest for more centralized training offered specifically on topics like diversity and inclusion, multiculturalism and anti-harassment. While this enthusiasm for training on multiculturalism is encouraging, it is insufficient in itself to achieve the goals of the Multiculturalism Act. Multiculturalism considerations need to be included in the operations and policies of all federal institutions in order to truly contribute to enabling all Canadians to fully contribute to Canada’s future. Further work is needed to ensure federal institutions consider other methods to foster inclusion, in addition to training.
The fact that many federal institutions responded to questions on the implementation of the Act with initiatives or policies related to Employment Equity or other topics not directly linked to the Multiculturalism Act, suggests that more work is needed to educate institutions and employees on the broader purposes of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act, compared to those of the Employment Equity Act which focuses on ensuring an equitable level of representation of designated groups in the federal public service.
|Business Development Bank of Canada||All employees have access to diversity training through on-line training modules. Topics covered include: Aboriginal Awareness, communicating across generations, Diversity on the Job - Diversity and you, Does Religion have a place at work?, Group Identity- How to work with or serve a person with a disability, Invisible Disabilities, Straight Allies, What is a Disability?|
|Canadian Security Intelligence Service||Institution emphasizes diversity and inclusion throughout all of its training initiatives. Training includes: Diversity Learning Framework, Items of Religious Significance, Hate and Bias Crime Investigation, Diversity on the Job, Communicating Across Cultures, and Managing Change.|
Promotion of events that highlight and inform employees of racism/discrimination
Federal institutions were asked to provide information about their participation in the active promotion of events that highlight and inform employees of what constitutes racism and/or discrimination. Of the 103 respondents, approximately 70% reported that they actively promote events, 20% reported that they had not promoted events, and 10% were unable to provide information. The days and events most often reported are: the International Day for the Elimination of Racism, Black History Month, Multiculturalism Day, and Asian Heritage Month. Federal institutions promoted events and activities using their internal website, email, information sessions, promotional materials/products and departmental champions/networks. In the 2017 Public Service Employee Annual Survey, 81% of employees in the public service believed that their institution implements activities and practices that support a diverse workplace, a slight increase from the 2014 Public Service Employee Survey (79%).Footnote 44
Overall, federal institutions have demonstrated that they have mechanisms in place to foster workplaces free of harassment and discrimination and are educating employees through workplace events. However, more specific training needs to be implemented to educate and inform employees about racism.Footnote 45
|Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation||
Employees organized celebrations and events to mark key diversity milestones like National Aboriginal Day, Black History Month, Asian Heritage Month, International Women’s Day and Pride. On the organization’s internal website, employees are provided with a variety of diversity training tools, ranging from multimedia presentations to books on a wide range of diversity education topics.
|Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces||
Highlighted events such as: the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Asian Heritage Month, Black History Month, through internal and external communications. Activities and communication about those events were conducted throughout the Department, as well as through social media, web, email and other means of communication. Videos, infographics, posts and other electronic and print products were also produced to highlight various events.
Number of complaints, the communication of rights and the complaint process
Approximately, 71% of federal institutions reported that they had no complaints from employees related to ethno-cultural, gender and/or religious discrimination. In comparison, 19% of federal institutions reported that they had complaints related to ethno-cultural, gender and/or religious discrimination. The remaining 11% of institutions did not provide a response as the small size of these institutions did not permit them to respond while maintaining employee privacy and confidentiality. Correspondingly, 93% of reporting institutions’ indicated that they have communicated employee rights and the complaints process for issues of discrimination, usually through their internal website, training courses, information sessions, team meetings, human resources and union representatives.
|Federal institutions that have communicated employee rights and the complaints process||96||93%|
|Federal institutions that have not communicated employee rights and the complaints process||3||2.9%|
|Did Not Respond||4||3.9%|
Federal institutions reported that they provided training in the following areas to employees: Values and Ethics, Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act, Values and Ethics Code for the Federal Public Service, Anti-Harassment, Violence Prevention, Respectful Workplace, Diversity and Inclusiveness Policy, Anti-Discrimination, Mental Health, Anti-Bullying, Mutual Respect and Collective Agreements.
Overall, federal institutions are educating employees about their rights and the complaints process as it pertains to discrimination. However, the fact that 71% of institutions have received no complaints of harassment or discrimination does not mean that these incidents do not occur. In the 2014 Public Service Employee Survey 22% of respondents indicated that they had been a victim of on the job harassment in the past two years, while 12% of respondents relayed that they had been a victim of discrimination. Further examination of these findings will need to take place as many employees may refrain from putting forward a complaint for fear of reprisal or negative consequences—a phenomenon known as underreporting. The 2017 Public Service Employee Survey will provide greater insight into the measures implemented since 2014 that inform employees of their rights as they relate to issues of racism and discrimination in the workplace, and measures that have been taken to foster the culture of respectful workplaces.
|Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada||
Maintains internal website with resources and tools regarding employee well-being. Created a guide for employees for restoring the workplace following a harassment complaint, managing conflict, etcetera. Communicates information through internal news bulletin and promotes the services offered by the workplace relations team.
|Defense Construction Canada||
The institution uses its monthly diversity newsletter to emphasize their policies and processes in the areas of diversity and inclusion. New hires take mandatory training on maintaining a respectful workplace, all employees must take a refresher every three years. The institution’s staffing handbook sets out the guidelines for employment equity and the human resources team provides guidance and coaching, administrative tools, and job advertising options to support employment equity objectives.
Enhance the ability of individuals and communities to contribute to the continuing evolution of Canada
Federal institutions have designed, developed and implemented programs, policies and services that provide all Canadians opportunities to contribute to the evolution and shaping of the Canadian society.
Application of multiculturalism lens in developing policies, programs, practices and services
Institutions were asked if they applied a multiculturalism lens when developing policies, programs and practices. The concept of a multiculturalism lens is understood as an exercise where the various cultural, racial and ethnic identities of the population are taken into account in the development and implementation of policies, practices, programs and services. The application of a multiculturalism lens allows for the identification and removal of unnecessary obstacles to some communities and ensures that all Canadians are served.
Sixty-four percent of respondents reported that they did apply a multiculturalism lens, citing examples such as creation of targeted outreach campaigns, producing research and providing employees training on how to best deliver services to minority communities. Many institutions reported that they reviewed existing policies and programs to identify potential and real challenges posed to minority communities.
Federal institutions that don’t serve the public seemed to have the most difficulty in reporting on the implementation of the Act. However, that did not prevent some of them from promoting an understanding and respect of multiculturalism within their institution and ensuring that it was reflected in their internal policies. Examples given of policies developed with a multiculturalism lens include essential policies such as anti-harassment policies, code of conducts, code of ethics, etcetera.
The Gender Based Analysis Tool Plus (GBA+) analysis tool was mentioned often by respondents. Institutions used the intersectional aspect of the tool to assess potential impacts on various groups. However, it is important to note that multiculturalism goes beyond the scope of the Gender Based Analysis Tool Plus (GBA+) analysis tool, as the tool aims to provide a gendered intersectional approach to analysis whereas the primary focus of a multiculturalism lens is to take into account and adapt to the cultural, racial and ethnic diversity of the people we serve in the development and delivery of programs, practices, policies and services.
|Yes||No||Basic policies||Did not respond||Total|
|Small Institutions (Under 500 Full Time Employees)||50.9%||7.0%||28.1%||14.0%||55.3%|
|Large Institutions (500+)||76.1%||4.3%||19.6%||0.0%||44.6%|
Overall, federal institutions do apply a multiculturalism lens when developing or implementing some policies, programs, practices and services. However, the practice is not implemented to the same degree across federal institutions, nor generally applied in the development of all policies, programs, services and practices in one institution. More effort is needed to properly support diversity and inclusion both inside institutions and within their business operations. Small institutions (500 or fewer employees) in particular were more likely to have codes of conduct or ethics in place but tended to not develop their external policies with a multiculturalism lens.
|Global Affairs Canada||
In early 2017, Global Affairs Canada established the Digital Inclusion Lab – a multidisciplinary team that tackles issues at the intersection of human rights and inclusion on one hand and tech on the other. One aspect of the Lab’s mandate is to better understand the online agency of diverse individuals and groups and to identify innovative ways to advance their objectives related to inclusion and equality.
|Canada Council for the Arts||
The Canada Council has developed a new Equity Priority Policy, which governs and supports the Council’s application of equity principles and practices in all of its activities, including their New Funding Model which prioritizes applications from equity-seeking groups.
Partnerships to promote diversity and inclusion
The majority (64%) of federal institutions reported having established partnerships with relevant bodies to promote diversity and inclusion in institutional business lines. Partnerships were developed with universities, non-governmental organizations and other government organizations at the federal, provincial/territorial or municipal level.
The establishment of partnerships represents an opportunity for improvement in regards to the implementation of the Multiculturalism Act. Many institutions expressed the desire to partner with other federal institutions through training and activities, and external partners could be engaged more frequently to increase the promotion of diversity and inclusion. Competing priorities and insufficient resources make it challenging for federal institutions to develop partnerships for the promotion of multiculturalism.
|Defence Construction Canada||
The institution joined the Canadian Centre for Diversity and Inclusion as an Employer Partner. Members of the Human Resources team are now using the centre’s tools and resources, Defence Construction Canada will be promoting the centre’s diversity newsletter and webinars to all employees.
|Export Development Canada||
Export Development Canada partnered with the University of Ottawa’s Telfer School of Management and Deloitte for the second annual Diversity and Inclusion Masters of Business Administration Case Competition. Export Development Canada provided information and data and participated in business roundtables for the Pluralism Project funded by the Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation.
|National Capital Commission||
In September 2016, the National Capital Commission hosted the workshop “Reconciliation and the Promotion of More Inclusive Societies” organized by McGill University’s Institute for the Study of International Development, an executive certificate designed to challenge participants to think critically about the role they can play in building a more inclusive society.
Materials and websites translated into multiple languages
Institutions that had materials translated in non-official languages were mostly public facing institutions that required the public to take action after consulting their material, for example by voting (Elections Canada’s My Voter guide) or filling out a questionnaire (Statistics Canada’s Census). These institutions were successful in identifying potential barriers for individuals who speak languages other than French or English and provided their clients the tools to overcome these obstacles. Having materials translated in multiple languages also helped institutions increase their outreach, especially with hard to reach cultural communities. Some institutions that don’t directly serve the public also had materials translated in multiple languages, for example to engage their international stakeholders. Forty two percent of the 103 responding institutions have at least some material/websites translated in non-official languages.
A relatively small number of institutions seem to be performing particularly well with regards to identifying the ways in which offering material in non-official languages would allow them to best serve Canadians. Other institutions expressed an interest in exchanging best practices and information on multilingual material.
Many federal institutions referred to the Official Languages Act when asked about materials available in multiple languages. It should be noted that the Multiculturalism Act does not require institutions to translate materials into other languages. However, to achieve the purpose of the Act, institutions should evaluate the relevance for them to make their materials available in different languages for the public.
|Business Development Bank of Canada||
For specialized programming, Business Development Canada advertises in print and digital media in languages that reflect the linguistic needs of local ethno-cultural communities, such as Farsi, Punjabi, Korean and Arabic.
|Canadian Broadcasting Corporation||
Offers diverse regional and cultural perspectives in English, French and eight Indigenous languages. Also offers content in Spanish, Arabic and Mandarin through Radio Canada International (RCI). Radio-Canada also uses Mosaïka, a diversity database used by content managers, to increase the on-air representation of collaborators from different cultural backgrounds and who speak multiple languages other than English and French.
|Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario||
To ensure that diversity in Ontario is supported, through Canada Business Ontario (CBO), Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario maintains a collection of online multilingual business information resources. Canada Business Ontario offers information in 13 languages, in addition to English and French, and consistently tracks their usage. Multilingual documents are available in Arabic; Simplified Chinese; Traditional Chinese; Farsi; Italian; Korean; Polish; Portuguese; Punjabi; Russian; Spanish; Tagalog; and Urdu.
|Public Health Agency Canada||
Mental Health guides were translated into Punjabi and Chinese. In collaboration with Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada (IRCC), maternal and child health material was developed and made available in Arabic and specifically targeted at Syrian refugees. The agency also developed a poster and information sheet in French, English, Arabic, Urdu and Turkish to provide recommendations on ways Canadian travelers can stay healthy during their Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages.
The 2016 Census was translated in 11 Indigenous languages, 11 ethnic languages, and braille. It was also available in audio and sign language video as well. The large majority of Canadians were served in the language of their choice, going beyond the mandatory provisions for French and English.
Access to translators for programs and services
Not having material translated or not communicating the availability of translated resources and translate services when these are available may impede some clients from accessing programs or services. Just under one-third of the 103 responding institutions reported that the public could access translators for their programs/services. Among those, some had partnerships in place with other federal institutions or external organizations to provide translation services as needed. Others leveraged the language skills of their employees, either through informal means, or via an established system where employees disclose the languages they speak and make themselves available to provide services in or input on matters in those languages.
Although innovative practices were observed for this section, there remains room for improvement with regard to ensuring access to translators for the public. Institutions could focus on: having a plan and process in place identifying how documents can be translated when a request is made; and informing the public or clients that translation is available.
|Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada||
All persons in the hearing room are free to speak in the official language of their choice and at the request of any party to the proceedings of the Board. On request, the Immigration and Refugee Board routinely makes arrangements to provide interpretation for those who speak other languages. The institutions “Interpreter Program” is one of the largest in Canada with approximately 1200 interpreters made available in three regions. The Interpreter Program has the ability to offer interpretation in approximately 240 languages and dialects.
|Canadian Grain Commission||
The institution has established partnerships to access a network of international translators and translation services, when needed, through the institution’s translation coordinator.
Promotion of intercultural understanding and respect for diversity
In 2016-17, federal institutions confirmed their commitment to promoting the understanding of and respect for diversity in the workplace by appointing diversity and/or multiculturalism champions. Moreover, federal institutions showed enthusiasm for this topic and often went beyond what was asked of them, creating diversity committees or appointing champions to address specific causes and communities.
Active multiculturalism and diversity champions
Over half (56.8%) of the 103 federal institutions have both multiculturalism and diversity champions, although in some cases the two roles were assumed by the same person. Furthermore, 16.6% of the institutions had one champion or the other, while 17.5% didn’t have either. Some institutions (8.8%) appointed champions with different titles than Multiculturalism or Diversity champion to take on similar roles, such as champions for each of the employment equity designated groups, LGTBQ2 / Positive Space, agents of change and more suggesting that where it is possible, organizations adapt the number and mandate of champions in their organizations to better respond to the needs of the organization.
|Multiculturalism Champion||Yes||No||Did Not Respond||Total|
|Did Not Respond||1.0%||1.0%||7.8%||9.7%|
Collection of diversity data to inform and enable the development of policies, programs, practices and services
Approximately 82% of federal institutions use diversity data to improve their internal or external policies, programs and/ or services. Of the institutions that reported collecting data on diversity, 54% used diversity data for internal purposes, 4% for external purposes, and 43% for both.
Examples of this include using employment equity statistics in order to analyze gaps in hiring or improve policies, programs and practices, and using employee engagement surveys to better understand the needs of their workforce and to plan the people management priorities for their institution. Diversity data mechanisms that federal institutions cited include: the Gender Based Analysis Plus tool (GBA+), Phoenix, Statistics Canada Reports, Treasury Board Secretariat Management Accountability Framework Report, Treasury Board Secretariat’s Departmental Performance Reports.
All federal institutions collect and analyze some diversity data, but some institutions developed additional data collection and analysis mechanisms to better understand the effects of their programs, policies, and/or services on Canadians to ensure that they address the needs of all Canadians. Federal institutions reported that they conduct outreach, consultations, surveys, and commission research studies to gain a better insight about the communities they serve. These initiatives often extend beyond the legal or statutory requirements for data collection and/or consultation and are key in developing policies, practices, programs and services that achieve the purpose of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act.
One of the main challenges expressed by institutions for implementing the Act was the lack of, up-to-date data and/or tools to analyze it. Some institutions expressed concerns over collecting more internal data on diversity, not wanting to breach their employees’ privacy. However, a number of institutions found innovative ways to collect, analyze and make use of diversity related data in the development and implementation of their policies, practices and programs. With the help of these, a guide for collecting diversity data (other than employment equity) could be created to provide guidance for those institutions wanting to start to collect such information, included disaggregated data which would provide for greater specificity.
|Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada||
Partnered with Statistics Canada for various projects such as the release of the 2011-2036 Diversity Populations Projections. Completed a data linkage between the longitudinal immigration database and the Canadian community health survey, which will provide information about the integration of immigrants. Working towards the addition of immigration category as a standard variable in the 2016 Census, which will provide all Canadians with information about an important aspect of our multicultural reality.
Multilingual capability and use of cultural experts
The inclusion of cultural experts in the design, development and implementation of programs, policies and services enhances the experiences of all Canadians and helps ensure that federal institutions provide high quality services to all Canadians. To this effect, it is useful for federal institutions to be able to leverage the cultural and linguistic capacity of their employees.
Approximately 35% of federal institutions reported that they access the multilingual capabilities of their employees to provide better programming and policy. Another 34% of federal institutions reported that they do not access the multilingual capacity of their employees, while 31% of federal institutions were unable to report at this time.
|Departments which Access Multilingual Capacity of Employees||36||35|
|Departments which do not Access Multilingual Capacity of Employees||35||34%|
|Did Not Respond||32||31%|
Many federal institutions, do not have a data capture tool in place to record the linguistic capacities of their employees other than for official languages. Among the institutions that reported on the language capacity of their employees, some collected the information through unstructured means while others established a system for employees to disclose the various languages they speak and make themselves available to provide services in those languages.
Approximately 65% of reporting institutions stated that they used “Cultural Experts” in the development of programs, policies and services, meaning that they sought the input of ethno-culturally and racially diverse employees, communities or groups. While 15% of the institutions stated that they did not use “Cultural Experts” in the development of programs, policies and services, and another 20% of federal institutions were unable to report.
|Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission||
The institution leverages the language skills of one hundred and twenty four (124) employees to assist with foreign delegations. The list resides in the Human Resources Information System and is updated on an annual basis, providing an opportunity to capture new employees. Collectively, the institution speaks a total of forty three (43) languages at various proficiency levels. The most commonly spoken languages are Spanish, Mandarin, Russian and Arabic.
On My Transport Canada Talent Network, employees can indicate their 3rd language and managers can reach out to them to get their expertise when needed. Employees working with international partners speak many different languages.
|Canadian Security Intelligence Service||
The institution’s program entitled: “The Academic Outreach program” draws on experts from a variety of disciplines to challenge employees’ assumptions and cultural biases and provide them with a better understanding of current and emerging issues in their field.
|Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada||
Human-centered methodologies are being used with increasing frequency, in order to help provide a framework within which to assess gender and other intersectional aspects of the client experience. For example, in the Citizenship Design Challenge, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) conducted over 100 interviews spanning cultural, gender and socio-economic class to understand their journey to citizenship -- prior to re-designing segments of the program.
Multiculturalism from now into the future
The Canadian Multiculturalism Act legislates the Government of Canada’s commitment to recognizing and respecting the diversity of race, culture, ethnicity, and linguistic heritage of Canadians. While Canadians are generally supportive of diversity and multiculturalism, challenges remain. Systemic and institutional racism and discrimination remain a reality for many minority communities, preventing them from fully contributing to the evolution of our society. This includes religious discrimination.
Federal institutions have made many strides in the implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and in promoting the representation and inclusion of members of visible minorities in the public service. Institutions have demonstrated that they now have policies, programs and practices in place to promote understanding and respect for multiculturalism in the public service. Federal institutions use their understanding of multiculturalism to adapt and improve their services to Canadians of various cultural backgrounds and tap into the knowledge and expertise of cultural experts when needed. However, more work still needs to be done to ensure that all policies, programs, practices and services are developed with at the very least a consideration of how their design can negatively impact certain cultural or ethnic communities.
This report provides a picture of the strengths and areas for improvement in regard to the implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act across federal institutions. The figures and data received this year will be used to create a baseline that will help the Multiculturalism Program to evaluate future efforts and results, providing a more transparent and rigorous framework to measure progress.
As the 30th anniversary of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act approaches, the time has come to look at the successes of the Act, and reflect on ways to further implement its original purpose: enabling all Canadians to contribute to Canada. To achieve this, policies and programs have been helpful in creating a basis upon which to build our efforts. These initiatives must be accompanied by a culture of inclusion that values diversity as a strength within our workforce and our country, a goal to which each Canadian can contribute.
Federal institutions, departments and agencies reviewed for the 2016-2017 Multiculturalism Annual Report
- Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
- Administrative Tribunal Support Service of Canada
- Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
- Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency
- Atlantic Pilotage Authority
- Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
- Auditor General of Canada
- Bank of Canada
- The Federal Bridge Corporation
- Business Development Bank of Canada
- Canada Air Transport Security Authority
- Canada Border Service Agency
- Canada Council for the Arts
- Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation
- Canada Development Investment Corporation
- Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions
- Canada Lands Company
- Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
- Canada Newfoundland & Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board
- Canada Pension Plan Investment Board
- Canada Post
- Canada Revenue Agency
- Canada School of Public Service
- Canada Science and Technology Museums Corporation
- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
- Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
- Canadian Commercial Corporation
- Canadian Dairy Commission
- Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
- Canadian Food Inspection Agency
- Canadian Grain Commission
- Canadian Human Rights Commission
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research
- Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat
- Canadian Museum of History
- Canadian Museum of Immigration
- Canadian Museum of Nature
- Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
- Canadian Race Relations Foundation
- Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission
- Canadian Security Intelligence Service
- Canadian Transportation Agency
- Correctional Service Canada
- Defence Construction
- Department of Finance Canada
- Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces
- Elections Canada
- Employment and Social Development Canada
- Export Development Canada
- Farm Credit Canada
- Farm Products Council Canada
- Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario
- Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada
- First Nations Tax Commission
- Fisheries and Oceans Canada
- Global Affairs Canada
- Great Lakes Pilotage Authority
- Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
- Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
- Infrastructure and Communtiies Canada
- Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada
- International Development Research Centre
- Laurentian Pilotage Authority Canada
- Library and Archives Canada
- Marine Atlantic Canada
- Military Grievances External Review Committee
- Military Police Complaints Commission
- National Arts Centre
- National Capital Commission
- National Energy Board
- National Film Board of Canada
- National Gallery of Canada
- National Research Council Canada
- Natural Resources Canada
- Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
- Office of the Commissioner for Judicial Affairs Canada
- Office of the Communications Security Establishment Commissioner
- Office of the Correctional Investigator Canada
- Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Canada
- Pacific Pilotage Authority Canada
- Parks Canada
- Parole Board of Canada
- Patented Medicine Prices Review Board
- Polar Knowledge Canada
- Privy Council Office
- Public Sector Pension Investment Board (PSP Investments)
- Public Health Agency Canada
- Public Safety Canada
- Public Works and Government Services Canada
- Royal Canadian Mint
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police External Review Committee
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police
- Shared Services Canada
- Statistics Canada
- Telefilm Canada
- The Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Incorporated
- The National Battlefields Commission
- Transport Canada
- Transportation Safety Board of Canada
- Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat
- Veterans Affairs Canada
- Via Rail Canada
- Western Economic Diversification Canada
Reporting tool provided to federal institutions
An indicator based reporting tool that was provided to federal institutions so that they may provide information about their implementation of the Act.
Obligation 3.2(a) – ensure that Canadians of all origins have an equal opportunity to obtain employment and advancement in those [federal] institutions
- Canadians of all origins have equal opportunities to obtain employment and advancement in federal institutions
This outcome is assessed through the following areas of measurement:
- anti-racism/ discrimination measures (internal to the institution)
- employment equity (EE) measures
- Number of persons from each employment equity group in senior management/ executive positions.
- Number of persons from each employment equity group in non-senior management / executive positions;
- Number of new hires from each designated employment equity group;
- Number of all staff (including senior management/ executives) participating in diversity and anti-discrimination/ racism training;
- Active promotion of events, such as an anti-racism week, that help to highlight and inform employees of what constitutes racism/ discrimination.
- Clear communication of employee rights and the complaints process related to discrimination.
- Number of complaints related to ethno-cultural, gender or religious discrimination that are heard and resolved in a timely manner.
Obligation 3.2(b) – promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the ability of individuals and communities of all origins to contribute to the continuing evolution of Canada
- Internal and external policies, programs, practices and services promote inclusion, diversity and equitable participation
This outcome is assessed through the following areas of measurement:
- internal policies, practices, programs and services that promote inclusion, diversity and equitable participation of Canadians of all origins
- external policies, practices, programs, and services that promote inclusion, diversity and equitable participation of Canadians of all origins funding, resources and/ or in-kind support given to initiatives that promote inclusion, diversity and equitable participation
- Policies/ programs/ practices/ services are developed with “multiculturalism lens” (promote diversity, inclusion and equitable participation of cultural/ religious/ linguistic communities);
- Partnerships with relevant bodies (provinces/ territories; stakeholder organizations) to promote diversity and inclusion in institutional business lines;
- Proportion of institutional programs/ services that have materials/ websites translated into multiple languages;
- Proportion of institutional programs/ services to the public that can access translators where needed;
- Institution recognizes outstanding contributions by staff, citizens or organizations who actively promote diversity and inclusion (related to their business lines) of Canada’s diverse communities (cultural/ religious/ ethnic/ linguistic).
Obligation 3.2(c) – promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the understanding of and respect for the diversity of the members of Canadian society
- Policies, programs, practices and services promote the understanding of and respect for the diversity of Canadians
- This outcome is assessed through all initiatives, both internal and external to the institution, that promote inter-cultural and inter-faith understanding as well as respect for diversity
- Active multiculturalism champion;
- Active diversity champion;
- Other examples of support for events that promote diversity and inclusion
Obligation 3.2(d) – collect statistical data in order to enable the development of policies, programs and practices that are sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of Canada
- Development of policies, programs, practices and services make use of statistical data to ensure sensitivity and responsiveness to Canada’s multicultural reality
- This outcome is assessed through the extent to which data on the differential impact to various groups is used in the development of policies, programs, practices and services
- Collection of statistical diversity data to develop and/ or improve policies, programs, practices and services.
Obligation 3.2(e) – make use, as appropriate, of the language skills and cultural understanding of individuals of all origins
- Language skills and cultural understanding are used, as appropriate, to support the development of policies, programs, practices and services to Canadians
- Language statistics internal to the reporting institution
- Number of front-line or regional staff who are multilingual (other than both official languages). Alternatively, how does your institution leverage linguistic diversity and cultural competency in your programming and policy, for example to provide better services?
- Use of “cultural experts” in the development of programs, policies, and services for diverse communities/ populations.
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