Operations

Description

Detect, deter and defend against threats to or attacks on Canada. Assist civil authorities and law enforcement, including counter-terrorism, in support of national security, domestic disasters or major emergencies, and conduct search and rescue operations.

Detect, deter and defend against threats to or attacks on North America in partnership with the United States, including through NORAD.

Lead and/or contribute forces to NATO and coalition efforts to deter and defeat adversaries, including terrorists, to support global stability. Lead and/or contribute to international peace operations and stabilization missions with the United Nations, NATO and other multilateral partners. Engage in capacity building to support the security of other nations and their ability to contribute to security and the security of Canadians abroad. Assist civil authorities and non-governmental partners in responding to international and domestic disasters or major emergencies.

Results

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) continued to deliver on Canada’s defence objectives to ensure Canada remains Strong at home, Secure in North America, and Engaged in the world.

In FY 2019-20, the Department of National Defence (DND)/CAF conducted operations at home, across North America, and around the world. DND/CAF supported government partners in response to domestic crises (e.g. floods, fires and winter storms), maintained the defence of North America in partnership with the United States through the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), and continued to make valuable contributions to international peace and security alongside allies in deployed operations around the world. We ensured national strategic goals were met for missions from planning to conclusion. The CAF continued to strengthen its collaboration with other government departments and agencies working on the front lines of Canadian national security and reinforced efforts to advance the evolution of joint intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance. The Office of the Judge Advocate General supported the CAF in helping commanders to ensure that operational activities were conducted with the necessary authority.

DND/CAF has worked diligently to fine tune and integrate Joint Targeting Enterprise initiatives, as well as innovate to better provide targeting support to ongoing operations. These efforts focused on developing and articulating a targeting strategy and guidance to better enable target development within the Joint Targeting Intelligence Centre. Further, concerted efforts have been made to refine battle rhythm events and the Canadian Joint Warfare Centre conducted the Joint Non-Munitions effects experiment series to assist with these efforts. Progress has been made with regards to the integration of cyber enabled effects into operations; however, more work is required to generate targeted effects within the Information Domain.

The CAF continued to foster interoperability and strengthen intelligence sharing relationships. DND/CAF developed expertise and processes in order to support current and future collection capabilities. Significant improvements were made in Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. Oversight processes have been improved to solidify intelligence sharing relationships. Intelligence capability development has ensured that new Joint Operating Areas, such as Cyber, Space and Information operations, get the intelligence support they require.

The CAF and Communications Security Establishment (CSE) collaborated on the development of active cyber operations capabilities on behalf of the Government of Canada. The CAF supported several deployed CAF missions within cyberspace. Through this the CAF confirmed the success of the CAF’s non-kinetic targeting processes, the respective military authorities involved, the rules of engagement considerations, and the detailed coordination that are necessary for these types of operations.

The CAF enhanced its ability to operate in the Arctic. The CAF conducted training and presence operations to improve mobility and enhance surveillance capabilities in Canada’s North. This increased familiarity and situational awareness and has enabled the success of CAF operations in harsh operating environments.

Incremental Costs for Major Canadian Armed Forces Operations and information on current CAF operations and exercises are available on the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ website.

Experimentation

Defence related experimentation activities are outlined in this report under Core Responsibility 4 – Future Force Design.

Key Corporate Risk(s)

There are no key corporate risks associated with the Operations core responsibility at this time.

Departmental Result 1.1 – Canadians are protected against threats to and attacks on Canada

Through Operation LIMPID, the CAF conducts year-round surveillance and presence operations of Canada’s territories and approaches in order to achieve all domain situational awareness of the maritime, air, terrestrial, space, and cyber domains. This operation allows the CAF to better predict, monitor and respond to crisis in addition to contributing to the assertion of sovereignty on behalf of the Government of Canada.

  • Approximately 470 CAF personnel supported 39 missions, which included both surveillance and physical presence; and
  • Naval units contributed by building or validating Maritime Domain Awareness in their vicinity.

The Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) remained positioned to identify, confront and defeat threats to Canadians and Canadian interests at home and abroad through a cooperative joint interagency and multinational approach. In FY 2019-20, CANSOFCOM:

  • Maintained overwatch of potential threats;
  • Conducted the pre-positioning of forces to sustain high readiness in order to mitigate threats in North America and around the world; and
  • Conducted joint operations and collaborated with partners to identify potential threats.

As a key partner in Canada’s National Security community, the CAF strengthened its collaboration to improve the nation’s ability to detect, deter and degrade threats to Canadians and Canadian interests. The CAF continued to work to improve whole-of-government cooperation by ensuring that information and actionable intelligence against threats to Canada are shared and disseminated promptly with partner departments and agencies.

The CAF provided military support on national security and law enforcement matters, such as rapid disaster response, medical evacuations and other humanitarian incidents. In November 2019, the CAF provided support to the Province of Ontario in response to a social crisis in North Spirit Lake by deploying seven Canadian Rangers and support personnel for a period of 16 days resulting in positive effects in the community.

Under Operation LENTUS, the CAF responded to a range of domestic emergencies created by natural disasters, such as floods and forest fires, as requested by provincial or territorial governments. The CAF responded through five separate Operation LENTUS, which include the following highlights:

  • LENTUS 19-01: From April to June 2019, this operation deployed 2 534 CAF members, and four CH-146 Griffon helicopters to New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario in response to massive flooding.
  • LENTUS 19-02: From May to July 2019, this operation deployed 51 CAF members, five CC-130J Hercules aircraft and two CH-147 Chinook helicopters in response to wildfires in Pikangikum, Ontario. This coordinated effort saw the evacuation and return of this first nations community in the face of wildfire danger.
  • LENTUS 19-03: From May to June 2019, this operation deployed 153 CAF members and two CH-146 Griffon helicopters in response to wildfires in Alberta.
  • LENTUS 19-04: In September 2019, this operation deployed 430 CAF members and three CH-146 Griffon helicopters in response to a hurricane that occurred in Nova Scotia; deploying within hours of the hurricane ending.
  • LENTUS 19-05: In November 2019, this operation deployed 11 CAF members in response to flooding in Bearskin Lake, Ontario.

Note: Infographic used during Operation LENTUS spring flooding operations.


Results achieved

Departmental Results Departmental Result Indicators Target Date to achieve target 2019–20
Actual results
2018–19
Actual results
2017–18
Actual results
1.1 Canadians are protected against threats to and attacks on Canada % of requests for assistance that are fulfilled 100% 31 March 2020 100% 100% Not Available
New indicator as
of 2018-19
% of force elements that are employed within established timelines 100%
31 March 2020
100% 100% Not Available
New indicator as
of 2018-19
% of operations that meet stated objectives 100%
31 March 2020
98%*
92%
100%
Extent to which the Canadian Armed Forces is effective in domestic operations The Canadian Armed Forces is effective in the conduct of domestic operations 31 March 2021 This is a
qualitative
indicator**
Not Available
New qualitative indicator as of
2019-20
Not Available
New qualitative indicator as of
2019-20

Notes:

* Domestic Operations: 98%. Capability enhancement initiatives, such as the All Domain Situational Awareness Science and Technology Program, seeks to resolve challenges in the Arctic due to existing communication and Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) deficiencies impacting interoperability with partners and other governmental departments.

** This is a qualitative indicator and results are articulated as successes and challenges throughout Departmental Result 1.1.

For more information about the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ performance indicators, please visit GC InfoBase.

Departmental Result 1.2 – Canadians are protected against threats to and attacks on Canada

  • In FY 2019-20, there were 8 611 Search and Rescue (SAR) incidents (cases), with 1 701 cases having a final classification of 1 (Distress) or 2 (Imminent Distress). All Joint Rescue Coordination Centre SAR cases were handled effectively and prosecuted through to conclusion or handed over to an appropriate agency.
  • The 8 611 cases generated 568 SAR taskings for the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) air assets. In the other 8 043 cases, Joint Rescue Coordination Centres utilized assets of opportunity, including civilian aircraft and vessels that were available to resolve cases quickly and efficiently when safe and appropriate to do so.
  • Of the 568 times tasked, the CAF met their response posture for 483 cases; therefore, 85% of the time. There are many circumstances which determine how a tasked SAR unit responds and therefore whether the response posture can be met. Inclement weather and time to load additional fuel for long, extended missions are the main causes for delays. SAR mission coordinators used every tool at their disposal to ensure all responses to SAR incidents in Canada are effectively conducted and/or coordinated to conclusion, or to handover to an appropriate agency.
  • The 418 Squadron was re-established as a SAR operational training unit.

For more on search and rescue, please visit the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Search and Rescue webpage.


Search and Rescue (SAR)

On 6 May 2019, near Thunder Bay, Ontario, a 439 Combat Support Squadron CH-146 Griffon helicopter is prepared by aircraft maintainers for take-off during Chinthex 2019. Getting SAR technicians out the door on a mission is a team effort that involves a wide variety of trades and personnel on the ground and in the air.

Photo: Aviator Tanner Musseau-Seaward


Results achieved

Departmental Results Departmental Result Indicators Target Date to achieve target 2019–20
Actual results
2018–19
Actual results
2017–18
Actual results
1.2 People in distress receive effective search and rescue response % of Canadian Armed Forces aeronautical search and rescue operations that meet established standards 100% 31 March 2020 85%* 95.2% Not Available
New indicator as
of 2018-19
% of coordinated maritime, aeronautical and joint response to search and rescue incidents deemed effective 100%
31 March 2020
100% 100% 100%
% of requests for Canadian Armed Forces aeronautical search and rescue assistance that are fulfilled 100%
31 March 2020
100%
100%
Not Available
New indicator as
of 2018-19

Notes:

* Of the 568 Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) deployments, the CAF met their response posture for 483 cases, or 85% of the time. There are many circumstances which determine how a tasked SAR unit responds. Cited causes for delayed missions included inclement weather and time to load additional fuel for long, extended missions. SAR mission coordinators used every tool at their disposal to ensure all responses to SAR incidents in Canada were effectively conducted and/or coordinated to conclusion or to handover to an appropriate agency.

For more information about the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ performance indicators, please visit GC InfoBase.

Departmental Result 1.3 – Canada’s Arctic sovereignty is preserved and safeguarded

The CAF maintained a year-round presence in Canada’s North. This presence took the form of Joint Task Force (North), the CAF’s Northern headquarters, and several exercises and sovereignty operations held in the Arctic. These activities share the same purpose: to assert Canada’s sovereignty in the region, to strengthen the CAF capabilities to conduct Arctic operations, and to improve the CAF’s ability to work with government partners in response to Northern safety and security issues. It is important to note that climate change will impact the nation’s ability to detect, deter, and degrade threats to Canadians and Canadian interests in the future, likely increasing the need for increased resources specific to the Arctic.

  • Operation NANOOK was conducted in communities and locations across Canada’s Arctic including Nunavut, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and the Northwest Passage. Through Operation NANOOK, the CAF completed capability building activities across the Arctic region. The 2019 iteration of Operation NANOOK included the CAF, other government departments and agencies, domestic, and international partners. Under Operation NANOOK:
    • CAF personnel and international partners worked together to enhance and test their specialized Arctic skill-sets, reaffirming their reach and footprint, and their ability to operate in the High Arctic;
    • CAF members conducted activities from ground and underwater activities to complex logistical support, to improve its readiness and demonstrate its ability to sustain forces and operate in the region; and
    • The CAF Arctic Training Centre in Resolute Bay, Nunavut was leveraged this past winter as a staging area/exercise base camp for Operation NANOOK-NUNALIVUT to complete high Arctic training.
  • The Canadian Army updated the Arctic strategy in Northern Approaches – the Army Arctic Concept 2021”.
  • In support of the Government’s Arctic and Northern Policy Framework, DND/CAF led the development, in partnership with our security partners (Transport Canada, Public Safety Portfolio, and the Canadian Coast Guard), of a Safety, Security and Defence chapter to supplement the framework. Drawing on the expertise of the military, as well as the security and intelligence community, this public document, released in September 2019, provides a comprehensive overview of the changing security environment in the Arctic.

Operation NANOOK-NUNALIVUT

A Canadian Armed Forces Medical Technician ensures the safety of members from 12e Régiment Blindé du Canada D Squadron as they prepare for a reconnaissance patrol in Resolute Bay, Nunavut during Operation NANOOK-NUNALIVUT on 11 March 2020.

Photo: © 2020 DND-MDN Canada



All Domain Situational Awareness – ADSA

Through our ADSA Science and Technology Program, the Over-the-Horizon Radar project studies ways to increase the performance of Over-The-Horizon-Radar systems that are impacted by the Aurora Borealis in Canada’s Arctic.

#ArcticScienceMonth - Through our ADSA Science and Technology Program, the Over-the-Horizon Radar project studies ways to increase the performance of Over-The-Horizon-Radar systems that are impacted by the Aurora Borealis in Canada’s Arctic.


  • The All Domain Situational Awareness Program to deliver on advance means of ensuring Canadian awareness on the arctic and maritime approaches to Canada.
  • In August 2019, HMCS Ville de Quebec visited the new Nanisivik Naval Facility to test the span wire fueling system at the facility by conducting a "dry fit" hookup. Highlights for FY 2019-20 include:
    • The facility made significant progress towards reaching initial operational capability. The Initial Operational Capability and Final Operational Capability dates for the facility are expected to occur during the navigable season of 2022. Due to significant concerns and the uncertainty of how long the COVID-19 pandemic will last, the impact of the situation on the project cannot be determined; and
    • The facility has the fuel capacity of two 3.75-million-litre fuel tanks that will service the new Harry DeWolf Class Arctic and Offshore Patrol vessels as well as Halifax, Kingston, and Victoria Class including the future Canadian Surface Combatants.

Results achieved

Departmental Results Departmental Result Indicators Target Date to achieve target 2019–20
Actual results
2018–19
Actual results
2017–18
Actual results
1.3 Canada’s Arctic sovereignty is preserved and safeguarded % of Arctic operations and exercises that meet stated objectives 100% 31 March 2020 100% 100% 100%

For more information about the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ performance indicators, please visit GC InfoBase.

Departmental Result 1.4 – North America is defended against threats and attacks

  • Collaborated with our allies, regional partners and other Canadian government departments to detect, confront and defeat trans-regional threats. Security and defence objectives were realised through:
    • Coordinated contributions to multinational coalitions;
    • Capacity building through bilateral and multinational forums, and multinational training activities;
    • Key leader engagements; and
    • Strong relationships fostered in the Global Special Operations Force Network.
  • Through the NORAD Agreement, conducted binational maritime and aerospace warning and aerospace control capabilities to protect and respond to threats against North America. Throughout FY 2019-20, key activities included:

Aerospace warning:

  • Through a layered and integrated system of surveillance platforms and Command and Control (C2) systems, NORAD gathered, processed, assessed and disseminated intelligence and information related to man-made objects in the air and space domains;
  • The Canadian space satellite, SAPPHIRE, tracked debris and other threats to critical space assets to contribute to the United States Space Surveillance Network facilitating NORAD’s execution of warning in the space domain; and
  • The NORAD aerospace warning mission was supported by Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC), United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM), Transport Canada and additional key stakeholders.

Maritime warning:

  • NORAD, through a variety of Canadian and American information sharing networks, fused operational information and intelligence to provide situational awareness related to the maritime approaches to North America and internal waterways of Canada and the United States;
  • NORAD leveraged existing Canadian and American systems, procedures, organizations and personnel to accomplish the maritime warning mission; and
  • Close collaboration and liaison with USNORTHCOM, CJOC and other defence and security partners ensured that NORAD provided sufficient warning, in the maritime and aerospace domains, to the governments of both Canada and the United States to act in a timely and coordinated manner to ensure the safety and security of our way of life.

North American Aerospace Defense Command F-22s, CF-18s (seen in the distance) supported by KC 135 Stratotanker and E-3 Sentry Airborne Warning and Control System aircraft, intercepted two Russian Tu-142 maritime reconnaissance aircraft entering the Alaskan Air Defense Identification Zone on 9 March 2020

North American Aerospace Defense Command F-22s (seen in the distance) , CF-18s (pictured in the forefront) supported by KC135 Stratotanker (not pictured) and E-3 Sentry Airborne Warning and Control System aircraft (not pictured), intercepted two Russian Tu-142 maritime reconnaissance aircraft (one of two pictured in the middle of the photo) entering the Alaskan Air Defense Identification Zone on 9 March 2020.


  • Exercise (Ex) VIGILANT SHIELD is an annual NORAD exercise focused on defending North America from attack. The exercise incorporates CJOC and USNORTHCOM, government agencies, and allies to demonstrate readiness and the Commands’ ability to defend Canada and the United States by responding to a wide variety of security challenges. Ex VIGILANT SHIELD 20 allowed the CAF to conduct planning and operations within a contested environment against an adversary’s cyber campaign, specifically enabling the Canadian NORAD Region to operate in a contested cyberspace environment. Key cyber highlights for Ex VIGILANT SHIELD 20 during FY 2019-20 included:
    • Exercised defensive cyber operations through the Bi-National Memorandum of Understanding and Concepts of Operations, and advanced joint and combined military planning efforts in the preparation and conduct of North American defence operations; and
    • Enabled the CAF to operate in a contested cyber environment and validate processes, authorities, and responsibilities with allied partners with regards to cyber incident management.
  • To address the dynamic nature of the security environment, a review of the NORAD Contingency Plan (CONPLAN) is underway.
  • In support of the Evolution of North American Defence (EvoNAD) Study, NORAD, USNORTHCOM and CJOC continued to examine current plans, initiatives and emerging threats to identify capability gaps, identify solutions to address the vulnerabilities posed by the gaps and improve their overall cooperation.
  • As part of Operation CARIBBE, the CAF provided resources to include personnel, ships, and aircraft to Operation MARTILLO, a United States-led Joint Interagency Task Force – South effort by the nations of the Western Hemisphere and Europe to prevent illicit trafficking by transnational organized crime in the Caribbean Basin, the Eastern Pacific Ocean, and the coastal waters of Central America. Highlights for FY 2019-20 include:
    • Although it is challenging to measure the impact of this mission on substance trafficking at home, deployed vessels spent 275 days at sea and aircraft flew a total of 80 hours. Deployed assets disrupted a total of 3 817 kilograms (approximately 8 400 pounds) of cocaine and 25 kilograms (approximately 55 pounds) of illicit drugs, valued at approximately $95.5 million United States Dollars;
    • HMCS Whitehorse intercepted 467 kilograms (approximately 1 030 pounds) of cocaine;
    • HMCS Yellowknife intercepted 25 kilograms (approximately 55 pounds) of illicit drugs;
    • HMCS Yellowknife disrupted 1 040 kilograms (approximately 2 300 pounds) of cocaine;
    • HMCS Goose Bay conducted surveillance in the Caribbean;
    • 407 Squadron CP-140M assisted in the interception of 411 (approximately 900 pounds) kilograms of cocaine with Guatemalan Naval Forces and an additional 795 kilograms (approximately 1 750 pounds) of cocaine with USCGC BERTHOLF;
    • HMCS NANAIMO intercepted 1 104 kilograms (approximately 2 430 pounds) of cocaine; and
    • HMCS Whitehorse was assigned to participate in a multi-national exercise under the North American Security Initiative while employed during Operation CARIBBE, to develop a regional partnership between Armada de Mexico, the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) and the United States Coast Guard.
  • Two deploying Kingston Class Patrol Vessels from the Canada’s Pacific fleet were ordered home early amid COVID-19, along with 90 service members aboard.
  • In FY 2019-20, DND/CAF hosted two international meetings on the military use of space: the Canada‑United States Space Cooperation Forum and the Combined Space Operations Principals Board. Our leadership in both initiatives underlines the importance we give to deter any space‑based threats to North America and in working with allies (not only the United States, but Five Eyes (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States), Germany and France, which are also Combined Space Operations members) to learn to operate seamlessly together in space in support of the full spectrum of modern military operations.
  • As part of Operation ACKEE, the department continued to collaborate with Global Affairs Canada, to mentor, enable and create opportunities for the Jamaica Defence Force to grow as a Special Operations Forces leader to more effectively combat trans-regional threats in the Caribbean Basin. Other regional partners included Belize, the Bahamas, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana.

Operation CARIBBE

HMCS Whitehorse crewmembers transport seized drugs to a United States Coast Guard cutter during Operation CARIBBE on 13 April 2019.

HMCS Whitehorse crewmembers transport seized drugs to a United States Coast Guard cutter during Operation CARIBBE on 13 April 2019.

Photo: Canadian Armed Forces, Imagery Technician


Results achieved

Departmental Results Departmental Result Indicators Target Date to achieve target 2019–20
Actual results
2018–19
Actual results
2017–18
Actual results
1.4 North America is defended against threats and attacks % of continental operations that meet stated objectives 100% 31 March 2020 100% 100% 100%
% of Canada’s commitments and obligations to the North American Aerospace Defence Command agreement that are met 100%
31 March 2020
100% 100% Not Available
New indicator as
of 2018-19
Extent to which the Canadian Armed Forces is effective in continental operations The Canadian Armed Forces is effective in the conduct of continental operations 31 March 2020
This is a qualitative indicator* Not Available
New indicator as
of 2018-19
Not Available
New indicator as
of 2018-19

Notes:

* This is a qualitative indicator and results are articulated as successes and challenges throughout Departmental Result 1.4.

For more information about the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ performance indicators, please visit GC InfoBase.

Departmental Result 1.5 – Canadian Armed Forces contribute to a more stable and peaceful world

During FY 2019-20, the CAF contributed to the following in support of NATO assurance and deterrence measures. These measures aim to reinforce NATO’s collective defence. It also shows the strength of allied solidarity. Highlights from FY 2019-20 include:

  • The department deployed maritime, land and periodic air forces under Operation REASSURANCE in support of NATO assurance and deterrence measures, with the aim to reinforce NATO’s collective defence;
  • The CAF continued to deploy members on Operation REASSURANCE in Central and Eastern Europe. They are there as part of NATO assurance and deterrence measures. These measures aim to reinforce NATO's collective defence;
  • The DND/CAF provided military capabilities for training, exercises, demonstrations, and assigned NATO tasks. The CAF support to this NATO mission increased in scope, personnel and infrastructure. Canada was a significant contributor in NATO Land, Air, and Sea operations and exercises;
  • In FY 2019-20, the CAF broke ground for a new NATO Multinational headquarters building in Latvia. Construction began in August 2019 and is estimated to be completed in November 2020;
  • Land Task-Force: Canada continued its contribution to NATO’s enhanced Forward Presence;
  • Air Task Force Romania: The CAF provided a detachment of five CF118’s to support NATO Enhanced Air Policing. This deployment ran from September through December 2019; and
  • Maritime Task Force:
    • HMCS Fredericton set sail in January 2020 for a six month deployment, however all non-operational port visits and ceremonies were cancelled due to COVID-19; and
    • From 15 June to 16 December 2019, Canada led the Standing NATO Maritime Group 2 (SNMG2) from HMCS Halifax. This marked the first time in NATO’s history, a woman commanded a standing NATO fleet.


  • At the NATO Leaders Summit in July 2018, the Prime Minister announced that Canada would rejoin NATO’s Airborne Warning and Control System program, and committed further funding. The first cadre of five Canadians was posted in 2019. The expansion of this commitment will grow up to 25 members by 2023.
  • Operation KOBOLD is the CAF mission in Kosovo and Canada's role in the Kosovo Force; a NATO-led peace-support operation. Through this operation, the CAF supports Kosovo Force through the provision of five staff officers who help to provide logistic and headquarters support.
  • Operation ARTEMIS is the CAF’s contribution to maritime security and counter-terrorism operations in Middle Eastern and East African waters. The CAF works with its allies and partners to help stop crime in this region which includes Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean. On 11 April 2019, Canada handed over command of Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) to Pakistan, completing Canada’s fourth command. Additional highlights from FY 2019‑20 include:
    • HMCS Regina seized and destroyed 9 000 kilograms (approximately 20 000 pounds) of illegal narcotics, worth just over $4.7 million United States Dollars regional wholesale value; and
    • CAF personnel deployed to Bahrain in November 2019, for five months, to provide land-based support to CTF-150.
  • Operation IMPACT is the CAF’s effort to provide training, advice, and assistance to the Iraqi security forces, and support the Global Coalition against Daesh and NATO with highly skilled personnel. DND/CAF remained a committed partner to the multinational coalition to degrade and ultimately defeat Daesh, through a whole-of-government approach, training efforts and responding to coalition needs. Throughout FY 2019-20, the CAF provided capacity-building support to Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon. Key events included:
    • Participated in Exercise EAGER LION 19 in Jordan from August to September 2019, which is the largest military exercise in the Middle East;
    • In June 2019, the Minister of National Defence extended command of NATO Mission Iraq until November 2020, to complement our existing efforts in the Global Coalition against Daesh and to strengthen Iraqi security forces and Iraqi military education institutions so Iraqi forces can prevent the return of Daesh;
    • In April 2019, a ground-breaking ceremony took place to mark the start of the Jordan Border Road Rehabilitation project intent on rehabilitating the road that runs along Jordan’s northern border with Syria. The CAF will construct 63 km of road as part of Canada’s Middle East Strategy, which includes $60 million to be spent building partner capacity in Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon. The rehabilitation project will allow the Jordanian Armed Forces to better respond to threats in this region;
    • Canadian Training and Assistance Teams continued to help Jordan and Lebanon build military capacity through projects and training that contribute to long-term security and stability;
    • Provided specialized training to an all-female infantry platoon of the Jordanian Armed Forces including: combat first aid; personnel and vehicle searches; and interactions with civilian and displaced persons; 
    • Of note, a total of 278 women were deployed on Operation IMPACT during fiscal year 2019-2020. Operation IMPACT continued to benefit from having a diverse CAF presence and multiple perspectives contributing to success within a traditionally male dominated theatre of operations; and
    • Continued building partner capacity efforts in Jordan and Lebanon, despite CAF regular training activities being paused temporarily. Some mission critical activities, such as air sustainment operations, have however re-commenced.

Operation IMPACT

Major Jillian Pare and Jordanian Major Mohammad M. Brahmeh stand ahead of a Jordanian Super Puma taking off during Exercise OLIVE GROVE, a joint training exercise in the Jordan desert as part of Operation IMPACT, 9 September 2019.

Major Jillian Pare and Jordanian Major Mohammad M. Brahmeh stand ahead of a Jordanian Super Puma taking off during Exercise OLIVE GROVE, a joint training exercise in the Jordan desert as part of Operation IMPACT, 9 September 2019.

Photo: Corporal Ryan Moulton, JTF-I PA Image Tech


  • Operation UNIFIER is Canada’s contribution to support the Security Forces of Ukraine (SFU) through capacity building, in coordination with the United States and other countries providing similar training. In FY 2019-20:
    • The Government of Canada extended the mission to 31 March 2022;
    • The Government of Canada enlarged the scope of activities to include small training exchanges, maritime capacity building and English language training;
    • The CAF provided training to 1 129 members of the National Guard of Ukraine and 5 833 members of the Armed Forces of Ukraine through 163 course serials; and
    • The CAF trained more than 18 096 SFU candidates (total as of 31 March 2020) via 420 course serials spanning all domains of activity since the start of the mission in September 2015.
  • Under Operation FOUNDATION Canada works with the United States, and other countries, to counter terrorism. The CAF has personnel located in the Middle East, North Africa and Southwest Asia as part of Operation FOUNDATION. There were approximately 16 CAF members deployed on Operation FOUNDATION, serving with a variety of United States headquarters. The CAF members served as staff in each of these host headquarters to provide a link between the headquarters and the CAF.
  • The CAF made progress in its response to the 2018 Fall Reports of the Auditor General of Canada recommendation to increase the number of pilots and maintenance personnel, thus increasing the CAF’s capability to control Canada’s vast airspace and to contribute to international operations at the same time. In FY 2019-20, the department:
    • Initiated two operations:
      • Operation EXPERIENCE, a directive to implement initiatives to stabilize and rapidly increase levels of pilot experience; and
      • Operation TALENT, an Air Force-led effort to improve the quality of life and quality of service of all personnel and their families.
    • Launched additional initiatives to ensure the continuing health of the RCAF and its ability to achieve mission success;
    • Began accepting applications in summer 2019 for the new Air Operations Support Technician occupation in the Reserve, and Air Operations Officer occupation in the Regular Force; and
    • The Canadian Army advanced the implementation of the Canadian Army Equipment Readiness Programme, to ensure that the serviceability of Canadian Army equipment is maintained at the highest level possible. This will improve the number and efficiency of maintenance personnel, both military and civilian, as well as leverage commercial maintenance resources.

RCAF - Pilot recruitment


  • DND/CAF played an important role in United Nations peacekeeping in contribution to broader government objectives and whole-of-government efforts to prevent conflict, stabilize fragile situations and combat threats. Some of the capabilities we contributed to the United Nations peace operations are as follows:
    • DND/CAF announced the establishment of the Dallaire Centre of Excellence for Peace and Security. The centre’s initial focus area will be on how the CAF can implement the Vancouver Principles on Peacekeeping, and on the Prevention of the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers;
      • Operation PRESENCE – Mali. The CAF operation that provided aeromedical evacuation assistance to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) was successfully completed on 31 August 2019, as planned. The CAF continues to provide 5 staff officers assigned to the MINUSMA HQ in Bamako:
      • The Air Task Force operation began in August 2018 and was turned over to Romanian forces on 14 October 2019;
      • Five CH-146 Griffon helicopters flew as armed escorts for the Chinooks and carried out other critical tasks as required; and
      • Three CH-147 Chinook helicopters conducted aero medical evacuations, utility and air mobile operations.
    • Operation PRESENCE - Uganda. In August 2019, the deployment of a Tactical Airlift Detachment to Uganda in support of United Nations peace operations was announced. Since then, the CAF has provided the United Nations with episodic tactical airlift support out of Entebbe, Uganda. This commitment has been extended until July 2021. Highlights include:
      • As of August 2019, the CAF started deploying a Tactical Airlift Detachment on a monthly basis to Entebbe, Uganda, to assist the United Nations Regional support Centre. The Canadian Tactical Airlift Detachment is comprised of approximately 20 personnel and a CC-130 Hercules aircraft with the ability to transport personnel, equipment and supplies; and
      • Support was provided to both the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) and the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS).
    • Operation CROCODILE is Canada’s support to the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This mission is known as Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en République démocratique du Congo (MONUSCO). Nine CAF members deployed on Operation CROCODILE, serving in two places in the DRC: MONUSCO headquarters in Kinshasa, and the headquarters in Goma;
    • Operation SOPRANO is the CAF engagement in the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS). Ten CAF members deployed on Operation SOPRANO, assisting with military planning and logistics. They served as staff officers and military liaison officers at UNMISS Force Headquarters in Juba. Additionally, they served in other locations throughout the Republic of South Sudan; and
    • Operation JADE is a CAF mission in the Middle East, and a key contribution to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization. Four officers deployed on Operation JADE, serving as United Nations Military Observers

Graphic describing Operation PRESENCE . For more than a year, the CAF provided aeromedical evacuation coverage and transport aviation support to the United Nations Multidimensional Inegrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA).

  • The department continued to collaborate with Global Affairs Canada (GAC) to enable Canada’s contributions to a more stable and peaceful world through initiatives. In collaboration with GAC, DND has:
    • Operation ACKEE: The department continued to collaborate with Global Affairs Canada, to mentor, enable and create opportunities for the Jamaica Defence Force to grow as a Special Operations Forces leader to more effectively combat trans-regional threats in the Caribbean Basin. Other regional partners included Belize, the Bahamas, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana; and
    • Operation NABERIUS - DND/CAF continued to collaborate with GAC to mentor and enable the Forces armées nigériennes and Security Forces capabilities to address terrorism within Niger and regionally, as part of pan-Sahel and pan-African efforts setting the conditions for the regional coalition Exercise FLINTLOCK.
  • The department continued to meet our commitment to develop and implement innovative training for peace operations by helping to enhance the overall effectiveness of United Nations operations, including through support for the Elsie Initiative for Women in Peace Operations:
    • The Elsie Initiative for Women in Peace Operations is included in the Innovative Training line of effort. It is a whole-of-government initiative aimed at developing a combination of approaches to overcome barriers to women’s meaningful participation in United Nations peace operations;
    • In FY 2019-20, 18% of the CAF’s personnel deployed on United Nations missions were women, exceeding the minimum goal of 15%; and
    • The Elsie Barrier Assessment is in development; however, it has been delayed with new timeline to be announced.
  • The following two initiatives have been delayed pending results of the Elsie Initiative Barrier Assessment:
    • A new Canadian Training and Advisory Team to work with partner nations before and during a deployment to enhance their contribution to a given mission; and
    • Activities to meet United Nations needs in various training centres and schools, as well as contributions to mobile training teams.
  • The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) accepted Chairmanship of the Women, Peace and Security Chiefs of Defence (WPS CHODs) Network starting July 2019. DND/CAF’s focus has been: strengthening and formalizing the Network; expanding its membership; and increasing awareness and nations’ commitment to advance the Women, Peace and Security agenda. In FY 2019-20:
    • DND/CAF launched an aide-memoire entitled “Integrating Gender Perspectives in Operations” during the United Nations WPS CHODs Network meeting in July 2019. This handbook is designed to assist all members of the CAF to integrate gender perspectives and the principles of GBA+ into operations. It has been distributed to the CAF and to the participants of the Gender Integration Workshop, delivered through our Military Training Cooperation Program. It has also been made available to all members of the WPS CHODs Network;
    • Under the leadership of the CDS, 13 additional nations have joined the WPS CHODs Network. The memberships currently sits at 52 participating nations and an additional 40 invitations have been sent to prospected nations;
    • Work started on the development of a Network Charter. It will record nation’s pledges, and provide an opportunity for yearly updates on progress, during annual meetings;
    • DND/CAF has prepared a digital and portable training package to be made available to all United Nations countries in the fall of 2020; and
    • The Network members are preparing vignette contributions depicting examples of successfully implemented gender perspectives. These contributions will assist in the development of an “Illustrative Book on Gender Perspective Outcomes”, to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1325 on Women, Peace and Security.

Graphic describing a row of silhouetted people ranging in color from red to purple

  • The department continued to integrate guidance provided from: the United Nations Security Council Resolutions; the Canadian National Action Plan on United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1325; NATO policy and guidance; and Government of Canada direction on GBA+, into CAF’s planning and operations, and into the wider CAF institution. In FY 2019-20, the department:
    • Ensured operation orders for deploying forces contained an Annex on Human Security and Gender Perspectives, as part of the Operational Planning Process;
    • Issued a mission and rotation specific directive to each deploying Task Force Commander within which contained clear guidance on Human Security and Gender Perspectives;
    • Maintained Human Security and Gender Perspectives as important planning factors, drawn from an analysis of the local population and operating environment;
    • Considered and incorporated human security considerations and gender perspectives in operations to improve our understanding of the local population within the area of operation, which by extension optimizes planning, decision-making and execution; and
    • Ensured that deployed Commanders and Task Force personnel completed the required gender training and subsequently factored gender perspective considerations in daily operations and reporting.
  • Operation PROJECTION demonstrates Canada’s ongoing commitment to global peace. CAF members continued to operate in maritime environments globally, enhancing relationships with Canada’s allies and partners. The deployment of sailors, ships, submarines and maritime patrol aircraft supports the defence policy goals of increasing Canada’s understanding and active involvement in the world, as well as building partner capacity in support of peace and stability. In FY 2019-20:
    • The CAF logged 180 flight hours, deployed two maritime patrol aircraft, six ships, and approximately 800 personnel; and
    • In January 2020, HMCS Glace Bay and HMCS Shawinigan deployed to work with African nations to build partner capacity, promote maritime security and foster relationships in the region. The ships, however, returned to Canada early due to the cancellation of two international exercises in response to the global effort to contain the spread of COVID-19.
  • Operation NEON demonstrates the importance that Canada places on security in the Asia-Pacific region, international security and upholding the United Nations Security Council sanctions against North Korea. The CAF contributed three permanent members aboard United States Ship (USS) Blue Ridge, two rotations of Halifax-class frigates totaling eight weeks, and two rotations of CP-140 Aurora aircraft totaling eight weeks. CAF contributions in the region continues to be highly regarded and sought after by key partners in the region, including Japan and the United States.

Additionally, Canada has increased engagement and presence in the Asia-Pacific region. Participating with the US, Japan, Korea and other partners, Canada also continued to support peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula through its contribution to United Nations Command (Korea).



  • The department continued to collaborate with GAC to enable Canada’s contributions to a more stable and peaceful world through a number of initiatives. In collaboration with GAC, DND has:
    • Developed the Implementation Guidance and accompanying Aide Memoire for the Vancouver Principles, which offers a common basis to develop or amend policies, doctrine, training and education on child soldiers in the context of United Nations peace operations;
    • Provided tactical airlift support out of the United Nations Regional Service Centre Entebbe in support of the United Nations missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and South Sudan in August 2019;
    • Promoted among allies and within the United Nations the cross-mission support concept embodied by Canada’s tactical airlift support. This included a briefing to military advisors from Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Uganda, the United Kingdom, the United States and United Nations staff hosted by Canada’s Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York, in October 2019;
    • Leveraged the use of the tactical airlift to transport members of the United Nations’ Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations for their annual field trip to United Nations peacekeeping missions; and
    • Developed products to inform both the Minister of National Defence and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the best ways to respond to United Nations peacekeeping needs.
  • The department increased situational awareness, enabling early strategic warning of emerging crises, in conjunction with our NATO partners and Five Eyes allies (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States), via timely and credible intelligence processing, exploitation and dissemination. In FY 2019-20 we:
    • Produced and disseminated timely and relevant intelligence to Five Eyes countries on a number of key issues;
    • Participated in numerous Five Eyes defence intelligence forum meetings. These foras and associated initiatives enhanced cooperation on matters of all-source intelligence as well as in relation to particular intelligence disciplines. Among the initiatives advanced was the modernization of information technology systems to facilitate continued collaboration;
    • Enhanced Five Eyes transparency and cooperation with respect to workforce development in the defence intelligence field; and
    • Provided intelligence training opportunities to NATO nations.

Results achieved

Departmental Results Departmental Result Indicators Target Date to achieve target 2019–20
Actual results
2018–19
Actual results
2017–18
Actual results
1.5 Canadian Armed Forces contribute to a more stable and peaceful world % of international operations that meet stated objectives 100% 31 March 2020 98%* 93% 97%
Extent to which the Canadian Armed Forces is effective in international operations The Canadian Armed Forces is effective in the conduct of international operations 31 March 2020
This is a qualitative indicator** Not Available
New indicator as
of 2019-20
Not Available
New indicator as
of 2019-20

Notes:

* 98% achievement of international operation objectives (2% delta) relates to the onset of the COVID-19 global pandemic and the capability to generate targeted effects within the information domain. Due to the high priority placed on the safety of Canadian soldiers working abroad, measures were taken to ensure their personal safety, including in some cases, repatriation (ex. Operation IMPACT, Operation UNIFIER). These safety measures had knock-on effects for ongoing and planned CAF activities, contributing to the less than 100% target completion for the FY. Secondly, the CAF continues to refine its ability to integrate cyber enabled effects in CAF-led operations.

** This is a qualitative indicator and results are articulated as successes and challenges throughout Departmental Result 1.5.

For more information about the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ performance indicators, please visit GC InfoBase.

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)

2019–20
Main Estimates

2019–20
Planned spending

2019-20
Total authorities
available for use
2019-20
Actual spending
(authorities used)
2019-20
Difference
(Actual spending minus
Planned spending)
1,020,478,595 1,032,239,527 1,372,914,038 1,044,514,772 12,275,245

Human resources (full-time equivalents) 

2019–20
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–20
Actual full-time equivalents

2019–20
Difference
(Actual full-time equivalents minus Planned full-time equivalents)
4,923 2,647 (2,276)

Financial, human resources and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Program Inventory, including explanation of significant variances, is available in the GC InfoBase.

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