Latest environmental indicators
This page lists the indicators released by the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators program. Subscribe to our e-updates to receive the latest indicators in your inbox or follow us on Facebook or Twitter. #CdnEnv #Sustainability #Indicators
Performance and results
The effects of untreated mining effluent could be highly damaging to aquatic environments. The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations are designed to protect fish and fish habitat by governing the discharge of effluent into water frequented by fish. The indicator summarizes the test results observed since the regulations came into effect.
- Between 2003 and 2015, the percentage of mining operations meeting regulatory standards for total suspended solids increased from 92.1% to 98%. The fish toxicity test also showed an increase in compliance from 95% to 99.6%.
- Test results for all other deleterious substances and pH levels ranged from 98.3% to 100% compliance over this time period.
Wildlife and habitat indicators
Canada supports a remarkable diversity of life. About 80 000 species are known to exist in Canada, excluding bacteria and viruses. However, wild species face a variety of threats, including the loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat; pollution; overexploitation; and fishery bycatch and other incidental loss due to resource harvesting. These indicators summarize the risk of species loss.
- The Wild Species 2015 report assessed the conservation status of 29 848 species in 34 species groups. A national extinction risk level was assigned to 16 078 native species.
- 80% (12 833 species) are ranked as secure or apparently secure.
- 10% (1 586 species) are vulnerable.
- 10% (1 534 species) are imperiled or critically imperiled.
- Less than 1% (125 species) are presumed extirpated or possibly extirpated (no longer found in Canada).
Climate change is one of the most important environmental issues of our time. Climate change is caused by the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These increases are primarily due to human activities such as the use of fossil fuels or agriculture. The indicators report trends in greenhouse gases emissions nationally, per person and per unit gross domestic product, by province and territory and by economic sector.
- Canada's total greenhouse gas emissions in 2016 were 704 megatonnes (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq), an increase of 17%, or 101 Mt CO2 eq from 1990. Canada's emissions growth over this period was driven primarily by increased emissions from mining and upstream oil and gas production as well as transport.
- Since 2005, emissions decreased by 28 Mt CO2 eq or 3.8%. The decrease was driven primarily by reduced emissions from public electricity and heat production utilities.
Snow cover naturally varies with temperature, precipitation and climate cycles, such as El Niño. Over the long term, trends are primarily controlled by changes in temperature and precipitation. Information on snow quantities and snow cover duration is important for understanding how climate change is influencing snow cover in Canada
- Since the early 1970s, snow cover extent has decreased significantly in Canada during the months of May and June in response to a warming climate.
- In 2016, snow cover extent for May and June was at its third lowest since 1972, and April was at its 11th lowest point.
- The number of days with snow in 2016 were below average for most of Western Canada, the Prairies, southern Ontario, southern Quebec and most of the Atlantic provinces. A substantial part of northern Quebec and Labrador, and smaller areas of northern Yukon and Ontario, experienced above-average snow cover duration.
Wildlife and habitat indicators
The Canadian species index shows whether monitored species tend to have increasing or decreasing population sizes. This, in turn, provides an integrated measure of the condition of our environment.
- Between 1970 and 2014, vertebrate populations have, on average, declined by about 10%.
- Freshwater species trends varied over time and by 2014 showed little net change.
- Terrestrial species have declined on average, and by 2014 were about 10% below the 1970 baseline, mainly due to declines in mammal populations.
- Marine species generally increased in the 1970s and then declined. Trends vary among groups of species.
About 35% of Canada's area is covered in forests. Timber harvest is an important part of the Canadian economy. To ensure that forests can continue to provide timber, the harvests need to remain below sustainable limits. The maximum sustainable harvest is known as the wood supply. The indicator compares the amount of timber harvested with the wood supply.
- Between 1990 and 2015, timber harvest in Canada ranged from 48% to 85% of the estimated wood supply.
- Canada's wood supply has remained relatively stable since 1990, at an average of 238 million cubic metres.
The release of greenhouse gases and their increasing concentration in the atmosphere is leading to a changing climate. This change has an impact on the environment, human health and the economy. This indicator tracks greenhouse gas emissions and provides consistent information on emissions from the largest emitting facilities in Canada.
- In 2016, 263 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent were emitted by 596 facilities reporting to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program.
- The reporting facilities account for 37% of Canada's total greenhouse gas emissions.
Performance and results
Under the Paris Agreement, Canada has committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 30% below 2005 levels by 2030. This indicator tracks Canada's progress towards meeting its target.
- With measures in place as of September 2017, emissions are projected to be 722 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2030, or 2% below 2005 levels.
- With specific measures from Canada's clean growth and climate plan and for which enough information is available, emissions are projected to be 583 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 21% below 2005 levels.
Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential plant nutrients. When phosphorus or nitrogen levels are too high or too low, they can have harmful impacts on the food web of a lake or river. They are a measure of the health of Lake Winnipeg and its surrounding watershed. These indicators provide the status of phosphorus and nitrogen levels in Lake Winnipeg and 3 of its tributary rivers.
- In Lake Winnipeg, the highest levels of phosphorus and nitrogen in 2016 are found in the south basin near the inflow from the Red River. Levels decline as the water flows north.
- In the 3 largest tributary rivers, for the 2014 to 2016 period, high nutrient levels were detected frequently in the Red and Winnipeg rivers and intermittently in the Saskatchewan River.
- Lake Winnipeg Basin Stewardship Fund projects completed between 2010 and 2017 have prevented an estimated 110 700 kilograms of phosphorus from reaching Lake Winnipeg.
Healthy river ecosystems rely on clean water. The quality of water, and the health of rivers, depends on how people develop and use the surrounding land. These indicators provide a national and regional overview of water quality in Canada.
- Water quality in rivers in southern Canada is most often classified as fair to good. This classification means it can maintain healthy river ecosystems.
- Water quality tends to be worse where there are cities, agriculture, mining, or a combination of all 3 (mixed pressures).
- Water quality has not changed between 2002 and 2016 at a majority of sites across southern Canada. Where it has changed, it has improved more often than it has worsened.
Canada is a water-rich country. However, too much or too little water can lead to serious problems. When there is too little water, there may not be enough water to irrigate farmland and there may be drought. When there is too much, rivers may flood. These indicators provide information about water flows across Canada.
- From 2001 to 2015, most Canadian rivers had normal water quantity.
- Since 2010, there has been an increase in sites with a higher-than-normal quantity.
- The percentage of stations with a lower-than-normal quantity has declined since 2001.
Wildlife and habitat indicators
Aquaculture operators' compliance with environmental standards helps to protect our aquatic environment. The indicator provides a measure of how well aquaculture operators meet environmental protection standards related to the sector as set out in the Fisheries Act regulations.
- From 2011 to 2016, the annual compliance rate of inspected aquaculture operations with Fisheries Act regulations was over 98%.
- For the last 2 years, 100% of inspected aquaculture operations were compliant.
The Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators program develops and regularly reports on a wide range of environmental indicators. These indicators are used to keep Canadians informed and up-to-date on the state and trends of environmental issues of concern. The indicators also track and report on the progress of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy. Indicators from past releases are listed below.
- Emissions of harmful substances to air
- Household use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers
- Solid waste diversion and disposal
- Managing pulp and paper effluent quality
- Monitoring disposal at sea
- Reducing phosphorus loads to Lake Simcoe and south-eastern Georgian Bay
- Restoring the Great Lakes Areas of Concern
- Releases of harmful substances to water
- Ecological integrity of national parks
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