Rental Income

T4036(E) Rev. 21

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This guide uses plain language to explain the most common tax situations. It is provided for information only and does not replace the law.

Unless otherwise stated, all legislative references are to the federal Income Tax Act or, where appropriate, the federal Income Tax Regulations.

The term income tax return used in this guide has the same meaning as income tax and benefit return.

La version française de ce guide est intitulée Revenus de location.

Table of contents

Find out if this guide is for you

Use this guide if you had rental income from real estate or other property. The information in this guide relates mainly to renting real estate, but some of the information also applies to other types of rental property.

This guide will help you determine your gross rental income, the expenses you can deduct and your net rental income or loss for the year. It will also help you fill in Form T776, Statement of Real Estate Rentals.

To determine if your income is from property or from a business, see Chapter 1.

To find out if you are a partner of a partnership or a co-owner, see If you are a co-owner or a partner of a partnership.

If you are looking to report income or expenses from accommodation sharing, search accommodation sharing at canada.ca.

We have defined some of the terms used in this guide in Definitions. You may want to read them before you start.

Throughout this guide, we refer to other guides, forms, interpretation bulletins, information circulars and income tax folios.

What's new for 2021

COVID-19 pandemic measures

In 2021, the Government of Canada extended several existing temporary measures and introduced new ones to help businesses and individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. For more information on the measures, go to COVID-19: Financial support for people, businesses and organizations.

You may have received government COVID-19 assistance for your rental income or rental expenses, such as the Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy. You have to either include these amounts in your rental income or reduce your rental expenses by the amounts that you received. You may also have received a government loan. The loan itself is not taxable. However, any part of the loan that is forgivable is taxable in the year in which the loan is received. For more information, go to Changes to taxes and benefits.

Capital cost allowance for clean energy equipment

The legislation for the following measure was not finalized at the time that this guide was printed. When the legislation is finalized, the CRA will republish electronically any revised guides at Forms and publications. If you file your return before the revised guides are available, you may need to change your return.

To support investment in clean technologies, the capital cost allowance (CCA) Classes 43.1 and 43.2 would be expanded by:

  • including new types of property (for example, pumped hydroelectric storage equipment)
  • broadening eligibility for certain existing property types (for example, ground source heat pump systems)

This would apply to property that is acquired and that becomes available for use after April 18, 2021, where it has not been used or acquired for use for any purpose before April 19, 2021.

Also, for property that becomes available for use after 2024, access to Classes 43.1 and 43.2 for certain emission-producing properties would be restricted by:

  • removing some that are currently included in these classes (for example, fossil-fuelled cogeneration systems)
  • narrowing eligibility for others (for example, producer gas generating equipment)

Definitions

Accelerated Investment Incentive Property (AIIP) – Property that is eligible for an enhanced first-year allowance that is subject to the capital cost allowance (CCA) rules. The property may be eligible if it is acquired after November 20, 2018, and becomes available for use before 2028. For more information on AIIP, go to Accelerated investment incentive.

Arm's length – refers to a relationship or a transaction between persons who act in their separate interests. An arm's length transaction is generally a transaction that reflects ordinary commercial dealings between parties acting in their separate interests.

"Related persons" are not considered to deal with each other at arm's length. Related persons include individuals connected by blood relationship, marriage, common-law partnership or adoption (legal or in fact). A corporation and another person or two corporations may also be related persons.

"Unrelated persons" may not be dealing with each other at arm's length at a particular time. Each case will depend upon its own facts. The following criteria will be considered to determine whether parties to a transaction are not dealing at arm's length:

For more information, see Income Tax Folio S1-F5-C1, Related Persons and Dealing at Arm's Length.

Available for use – you can claim capital cost allowance on a rental property only when it becomes available for use.

A rental property, other than a building, usually becomes available for use on the earliest of:

A rental property that is a building, or part of a building, usually becomes available for use on the earliest of:

When determining the available-for-use date, you should consider a renovation, an alteration or an addition to a building as a separate building.

You may be able to claim CCA on a building that is under construction, renovation or alteration before it is available for use. You can deduct CCA that you have available on such a building when you have net rental income from it. The CCA that you can deduct is restricted to the amount of net rental income you have after you deduct any soft costs for constructing, renovating or altering the building. For an explanation of soft costs, see Construction soft costs.

Capital cost – the amount on which you first claim CCA. The capital cost of a property is usually the total of the following:

For more information on current expenses, see Current or capital expenses.

Legal and accounting fees for buying a rental property are allocated between the cost of the land and the capital cost of the building. If land is acquired for rental purposes or for constructing a rental property, the legal and accounting fees apply to the land.

Capital cost allowance (CCA) – you may have acquired depreciable property like a building, furniture or equipment to use in your rental activity. You cannot deduct the initial cost of these properties in the calculation of the net income of the rental activities for the year. However, since these properties wear out or become obsolete over time, you can deduct the cost over a period of several years. This deduction is called CCA.

Capital property – generally any property, including depreciable property, you buy for investment purposes or to earn business income. Common types of capital property include principal residences, cottages, stocks, bonds, land, buildings and equipment used in a business or rental operation.

Common-law partner – this applies to a person who is not your spouse with whom you are living in a conjugal relationship, and to whom at least one of the following situations applies. They:

Note

The term "12 continuous months" includes any period that you were separated for less than 90 days because of a breakdown in the relationship.

Depreciable property – the property on which you can claim CCA. It is usually capital property from a business or property. The capital cost can be written off as CCA over a number of years. You usually group depreciable properties into classes. Diggers, drills and tools that cost $500 or more belong in Class 8. You have to base your CCA claim on the rate assigned to each class of property.

Fair market value (FMV) – generally, the highest dollar value you can get for your property in an open and unrestricted market between an informed and willing buyer and an informed and willing seller who are dealing at arm's length with each other.

Multiple-unit residential building (MURB) a rental property in either Class 31 or 32 that has at least two self-contained residential units.

Motor vehicle – an automotive vehicle designed or adapted for use on highways and streets. A motor vehicle does not include a trolley bus or a vehicle designed or adapted to be operated only on rails.

Non-arm's length – generally refers to a relationship or transaction between persons who are related to each other.

However, a non-arm's length relationship might also exist between unrelated individuals, partnerships or corporations, depending on the circumstances. For more information, see the definition of "Arm's length."

Passenger vehicle – a motor vehicle that is owned by the taxpayer (other than a zero-emission vehicle) or that is leased, and is designed or adapted primarily to carry people on highways and streets. It seats a driver and no more than eight passengers. Most cars, station wagons, vans and some pick-up trucks are passenger vehicles.

Passenger vehicles and zero-emission passenger vehicles are subject to limits on the amount of CCA, interest and leasing costs that may be deducted. They do not include:

Proceeds of disposition – the amounts you receive, or that we consider you to have received, when you dispose of your property (usually the selling price of the property). Proceeds of disposition is also defined to include, amongst other things, compensation received for property that has been destroyed, expropriated, damaged or stolen.

Rental income – income you earn from renting a property that you own or have use of.

Rental operation – services you provide within your rental property to your tenants such as heat, lighting, laundry, cleaning or security.

Rental property – generally, a building or certain leasehold interests owned by a taxpayer(s) or a partnership that is mainly used to generate gross revenue from rent.

Spouse a person to whom you are legally married.

Undepreciated capital cost (UCC) generally, the amount left after you deduct CCA from the capital cost of a depreciable property. Each year, the CCA you claim reduces the UCC of the property.

Zero-emission passenger vehicle (ZEPV) an automobile that is owned by the taxpayer and is included in Class 54 (but would otherwise be included in Class 10 or 10.1). The rules that apply to the definition of passenger vehicles apply to ZEPVs as well. Note that although a ZEPV does not include a leased passenger vehicle, such vehicles, that would otherwise qualify as ZEPVs if owned by the taxpayer, are subject to the same leasing deduction restrictions as passenger vehicles.

Zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) is a motor vehicle that is owned by the taxpayer where all of the following conditions are met:

Note 

If the property was acquired after March 1, 2020, it may have been used, but a vehicle that was subject to a prior CCA or terminal loss claim cannot have been acquired by the taxpayer on a tax-deferred "rollover" basis nor previously owned or acquired by the taxpayer or a non-arm's length person or partnership.

Chapter 1 – General information

This chapter explains the general information you need to have before you fill in Form T776, Statement of Real Estate Rentals.

Rental income is income you earn from renting property that you own or have use of. You can own the property by yourself or with someone else. Rental income includes income from renting:

Rental income can be either income from property or business. Income from rental operations is usually income from property. Use this guide only if you have rental income from property.

Find out if you have rental income or business income

To determine whether your rental income is from property or business, consider the number and types of services you provide for your tenants.

In most cases, you are earning an income from your property if you rent space and provide basic services only. Basic services include heat, light, parking and laundry facilities. If you provide additional services to tenants, such as cleaning, security and meals, you may be carrying on a business. The more services you provide, the greater the chance that your rental operation is a business.

For more information about how to determine if your rental income comes from property or a business, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-434, Rental of Real Property by Individual, and its Special Release.

If your rental operation is a business, do not use this guide. Instead, see Guide T4002, Self-employed Business, Professional, Commission, Farming, and Fishing Income.

Goods and services tax/harmonized sales tax (GST/HST) new residential rental property rebate

Section 256.2 of the Excise Tax Act allows landlords who buy or build new residential housing, substantially renovate existing housing, build an addition to multiple-unit housing, or convert a commercial property into housing, to get a GST/HST new residential rental property rebate.

To qualify for this rebate, landlords must rent out housing for long-term use by individuals as their primary place of residence. The rebate may also be available to persons who provide land leases for residential use. This can include the lease of sites in a residential trailer park.

For more information, see Guide RC4231, GST/HST New Residential Rental Property Rebate.

If you are applying for a new residential rental property rebate, use Form GST524, GST/HST New Residential Rental Property Rebate Application. If you are claiming a rebate for multiple unit housing, such as an apartment building or a triplex (excluding condominium units and a duplex), you also need to fill in Form GST525, Supplement to the New Residential Rental Property Rebate Application – Co-op and Multiple Units.

GST/HST rebate for partners

To determine if you are a partner, see If you are a co-owner or a partner of a partnership.

If you are an individual who is a member of a partnership, you may be able to get a rebate for the GST/HST you paid on certain expenses. The rebate is based on the GST/HST you paid on expenses you deducted from your share of the partnership income on your income tax return. However, special rules apply if your partnership paid you an allowance for those expenses.

As an individual who is a member of a partnership, you may qualify for the GST/HST partner rebate if you meet the following conditions:

However, special rules apply if the partnership reimbursed you these costs.

Examples of expenses subject to the GST/HST are vehicle costs and certain business-use-of-home expenses. The rebate may also apply to the GST/HST you paid on motor vehicles, musical instruments and aircraft, for which you deducted capital cost allowance (CCA).

The eligible part of the CCA is the part that you deduct on your tax return in the tax year that relates specifically to a motor vehicle, musical instrument or aircraft on which you paid GST/HST. It would also be eligible for the rebate, to the extent that the partnership used the property to make taxable supplies.

You can also get a GST/HST rebate calculated on the CCA you claimed on certain types of property. For example, you can generally claim the rebate based on the CCA you deducted for a vehicle you bought to earn partnership income if you paid GST/HST when you bought it.

If you deduct CCA on more than one property of the same class, separate the part of the CCA of the property that qualifies for the rebate from the CCA on the other property. If any part of the rebate relates to the CCA deduction for a motor vehicle, a musical instrument or an aircraft, you have to reduce the undepreciated capital cost (UCC) of that property by the amount that is part of the rebate.

Complete Form GST370, Employee and Partner GST/HST Rebate Application, to claim your GST/HST rebate for partners. You have to include this rebate in your income for the tax year in which you receive it.

For example, if in 2021 you receive a GST/HST rebate for the 2020 tax year, you have to include the amount of the rebate on your income tax return for 2021:

For more information about the GST/HST rebate, go to GST/HST rebate for employees and partners.

Keeping records

Keep detailed records of all the rental income you earn and the expenses you incur. You have to support your purchases and operating expenses with:

Do not send your records with your income tax return. Keep them in case we ask to see them. We may not allow all or part of your expenses if you do not have receipts or other documents to support them.

For more information on operating expenses, see Chapter 3 – Expenses.

Generally, you must keep your records for six years from the end of the tax year to which they relate. For more information about keeping records, go to Keeping records.

Chapter 2 – Calculating your rental income or loss

If you received income from renting real estate or other real property, you have to file a statement of income and expenses.

Even though we accept other types of financial statements, we encourage you to use Form T776.

Form T776 includes areas for you to enter your gross rents, your rental expenses and any capital cost allowance (CCA). To calculate your rental income or loss, fill in the areas of the form that apply to you.

This chapter explains how to calculate your rental income or loss, as well as how to fill in the "Income" and "Expenses" parts of the form.

Rental losses are not allowed if your rental operation is a cost-sharing arrangement rather than an operation to make a profit.

Filling out Form T776, Statement of Real Estate Rentals

If you are a sole proprietor, fill in all the parts and lines on the form that apply to you.

You only have to fill in this form if you have a rental operation and you are reporting a rental income or loss.

Part 1 – Identification

Fill in this part to identify yourself and your real estate rentals. The last two lines of part 1 are for the person or firm preparing this form in case it is someone other than the owner of the rental property.

Fiscal period

If this is the first year of operation, enter the year, month and day you began your rental operation. Otherwise, enter January 1 of the current year.

All rental properties have a December 31 year-end. In the "to" field, enter the current tax year.

If you are a co-owner or a partner of a partnership

Most of the time, if you own the rental property with one or more persons, we consider you to be a co-owner. For example, if you own a rental property with your spouse or common-law partner, you are a co-owner.

In some cases, if you are a co-owner, you have to determine if a partnership exists. A partnership is a relationship between two or more people carrying on a business, with or without a written agreement, to make a profit. If there is no business in common, there is no partnership. That is, co-ownership of a rental property as an investment does not make a partnership. To help you determine if you are in a partnership, see the partnership law for your province or territory. For more information, see Income Tax Folio S4-F16-C1, What is a Partnership?

A partnership that carries on a business in Canada, or a Canadian partnership with Canadian or foreign operations or investments, has to file a T5013, Partnership Information Return, for its fiscal period if either of the following occur:

If you are a partner in any of these types of partnerships, you should get two copies of a T5013 slip, Statement of Partnership Income.

For more information on this return, go to Sole proprietorships and partnerships or see Guide T4068, Guide for the Partnership Information Return (T5013 forms).

If you determine that you are a partner in a partnership and you received a T5013 slip, fill in only the following fields on Form T776:

You may need to adjust your share of the net partnership income (loss) on amount 10 if one of the following apply:

Enter your net income (loss) at line 9946 by subtracting your expenses from the personal portion of the expenses.

If you are in a partnership and you do not receive a T5013 slip, or if you are a co-owner, fill in all of the parts in Form T776 that apply to you. Follow the special instructions in this chapter to fill in lines 8299, 9369, 9936, 9943 and 9946. Fill in "Part 2 – Details of other co-owners and partners" on the form.

Tax shelter identification number

If you have a tax shelter, enter your tax shelter identification number (8-digit number found on your T5013 slip) on the proper line.

We consider a tax shelter to include an investment that can be reasonably expected, based on any statement, representation or promotional literature, to provide federal tax credits, or a combination of federal tax credits and losses or deductible amounts that are equal to or over a buyer's net cost in any of the first four years.

The total of the federal tax credits and losses or other deductible amounts would be equal to, or greater than, the cost of your share of the investment after deducting the prescribed benefits.

The cost of your interest in the property has to be reduced by the prescribed benefits you or a person with whom you do not deal at arm's length will receive or benefit from. Prescribed benefits include provincial or territorial tax credits, revenue guarantees, contingent liabilities, limited recourse debt and rights of exchange or conversion.

To claim deductions or losses from tax shelter investments, attach to your income tax return the T5003 slip, Statement of Tax Shelter Information, and the T5013 slip, if applicable. Also attach a completed Form T5004, Claim for Tax Shelter Loss or Deduction. Make sure your form identifies your tax shelter identification number.

Note

Tax shelter numbers are used for identification purposes only. They do not guarantee that taxpayers are entitled to receive the proposed tax benefits.

If this is the first year you are making a claim for your tax shelter, include a copy of Form T5003 with your income tax return. If the tax shelter is a partnership, include a T5013 slip with your return.

For more information on tax shelters, go to Tax shelters.

Part 2 – Details of other co-owners and partners

Fill in this part if you are a co-owner or a partner in a partnership.

Part 3 – Income

List the address of your rental property and the number of units you rented.

You can receive rental income in the form of:

If your tenant pays you in cash or by cheque, include the total rents you earned in the year at line 8141 in the "Gross rents" column. If your tenant pays you in kind or with services, report their fair market value at Line 8230 – Other income on Form T776.

Example

Glenn is a tenant in an apartment building. He owns a truck with a plow on it. His landlord, Sonya, asked him to plow the parking lot after every snowfall. Sonya does not pay Glenn cash for his work, but she reduces his monthly rent accordingly.

Sonya reports the rent she charges Glenn at line 8141 as "Gross rents," and the fair market value of Glenn's services as "Other income," at line 8230. She then claims the fair market value of Glenn's snowplowing services as an expense that relates to her rental operation.

How to calculate your rental income

Report the rental income you earned in the calendar year from January 1 to December 31.

In most cases, you calculate your rental income using the accrual method. For this method you:

Incur usually means you either paid or will have to pay the expense.

If you have almost no amounts receivable and no expenses outstanding at the end of the year, you can use the cash method.

For this method you:

If you use the cash method and receive a post-dated cheque as security for a debt, include the amount in income when the cheque is payable.

You can use the cash method only if your net rental income or loss would be almost the same if you were using the accrual method.

We use the accrual method for the examples in this guide.

Who reports the rental income or loss

The person who owns the rental property has to report the income or loss. If you are a co-owner of the rental property, your share of the rental income or loss will depend on your share of ownership.

The rental income or loss percentage you report should be the same for each year unless the percentage of your ownership in the property changes.

Note

As the owner, you are the only one who can use the related interest expense to calculate your rental income or loss, even if someone else guaranteed your loan or mortgage. For more information, see Line 8710 – Interest and bank charges.

For more information on reporting rental income between family members, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-510, Transfers and loans of property made after May 22, 1985 to a related minor, and Interpretation Bulletin IT-511, Interspousal and Certain Other Transfers and Loans of Property.

Line 8230 – Other income

On line 8230, enter the total income you received from other sources. Some examples of other income are:

Premiums and leases – You may receive an amount for one of the following:

Report all or part of these amounts as "Other income" at line 8230.

Sharecropping You can earn income from renting farmland either in cash or as a share of the crop. Report any cash payments as rent in the "Gross rents" column, and report the fair market value of any crop share you earn on a sharecrop basis as "Other income" at line 8230.

Line 8299 – Total gross rental income

Your gross rental income is your total "Gross rents," on Form T776. Enter this amount at line 12599 of your income tax return. If you are a co-owner of the rental property or a partner in a partnership that does not need to provide you with a T5013 slip, enter the gross rental income for the entire property at line 12599. Do not split the gross income according to your ownership share.

Uncollectible rent

You can have losses from uncollectible debts or a portion of an uncollectible debt. You can deduct this amount from your gross rental income.

To be eligible, the debt must:

Proof is required to determine an uncollectible debt. This could be a notice to creditors from the trustee in bankruptcy, correspondence from the tenant, or some other assurance that the tenant was pursued without success of receiving a payment from them. Only debts that are certain of being uncollectible are to be considered bad debts.

You may have a case where you do not receive payment for rent, which is referred to as a bad debt. If, during the year, you receive any payment that you wrote off in a previous year as bad debt, you have to include the amount in your income for the current year.

Notes

If you are reporting income on a cash basis, there should be no receivables and no claim for uncollectible rents.

If you are not dealing at arm's length with the tenant, the factors used to establish the uncollectible amount would need to be verified.

For more information, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-442, Bad debts and reserves for doubtful debts.

Chapter 3 – Expenses

You can deduct any reasonable expenses you incur to earn rental income. The two basic types of expenses are:

Current expenses are recurring expenses that provide a short-term benefit. For example, a current expense is the cost of repairs you make to keep a rental property in the same condition as it was when you acquired it. You can deduct current expenses from your gross rental income in the year you incur them.

As for capital expenses, they provide a benefit that usually lasts for several years. For example, costs to buy or improve your property are capital expenses. Generally, you cannot deduct the full amount of these expenses in the year you incur them. Instead, you can deduct their cost over a period of several years as capital cost allowance (CCA). For more information on CCA, see Chapter 4.

Capital expenses can include:

Current or capital expenses

Renovations and expenses that extend the useful life of your property or improve it beyond its original condition are usually capital expenses. However, an increase in a property's market value because of an expense is not a major factor in deciding whether the expense is capital or current. To decide whether an amount is a current expense or a capital expense, consider your answers to the questions provided in the following chart.

Criteria to determine capital or current expenses
Criteria Capital expenses
(see Capital expenses – Special situations)
Current expenses
Does the expense provide a lasting benefit? A capital expense generally gives a lasting benefit or advantage. For example, the cost of putting vinyl siding on the exterior walls of a wooden house is a capital expense. A current expense is one that usually recurs after a short period. For example, the cost of painting the exterior of a wooden house is a current expense.
Does the expense maintain or improve the property? The cost of a repair that improves a property beyond its original condition is probably a capital expense. If you replace wooden steps with concrete steps, the cost is a capital expense. An expense that simply restores a property to its original condition is usually a current expense. For example, the cost of repairing wooden steps is a current expense.
Is the expense for a part of a property or for a separate asset? The cost of replacing a separate asset within a property is a capital expense. For example, the cost of buying a refrigerator to use in your rental operation is a capital expense. This is the case because a refrigerator is a separate asset and is not a part of the building. The cost of repairing a property by replacing one of its parts is usually a current expense. For instance, electrical wiring is part of a building. Therefore, an amount you spend to rewire is usually a current expense, as long as the rewiring does not improve the property beyond its original condition.
What is the value of the expense? (Use this test only if you cannot determine whether an expense is capital or current by considering the three previous tests.) Compare the cost of the expense to the value of the property. Generally, if the cost is of considerable value in relation to the property, it is a capital expense. This test is not a determining factor by itself. You might spend a large amount of money for maintenance and repairs to your property all at once. If this cost was for ordinary maintenance that was not done when it was necessary, it is a maintenance expense, and you deduct it as a current expense.
Is the expense for repairs made to used property you acquired to put it in a suitable condition for use? The cost of repairing used property you acquired to put it in a suitable condition for use in your business is considered a capital expense even though in other circumstances it would be treated as a current operating expense. Where the repairs were for ordinary maintenance of a property you already had in your business, the expense is usually current.
Is the expense for repairs made to an asset in order to sell it? The cost of repairs made in anticipation of selling a property, or as a condition of sale, is regarded as a capital expense. Where the repairs would have been made anyway, but a sale was negotiated during the course of the repairs or after their completion, the expense is considered current.

You were asking?

Q. My brother and I own an old apartment building that we have been renting for several years. In the current tax year, we had the roof and outside walls repaired. The repairs to the roof involved waterproofing and re-shingling several patches that had developed leaks. The building is made of brick, and the outside walls were redone using the original bricks. Can we deduct these expenses in calculating our rental income for the year?

A. Yes. The repairs to the building simply restored it to its original condition. As a result, they are current expenses.

If you need more information on the difference between current expenses and capital expenses, see Income Tax Folio S3-F4-C1, General Discussion of Capital Cost Allowance.

Capital expenses – Special situations

Modifications to rental properties to accommodate persons with disabilities

You can deduct expenses you incur for eligible disability-related modifications made to a building in the year you paid them. You can do this instead of adding them to the capital cost of your building. Eligible disability-related modifications include changes you make to accommodate wheelchairs, such as:

You can also deduct expenses you pay to install or get the following disability-related devices and equipment:

Renovating an older building

Renovations or repairs are usually considered to be a current expense. When you renovate or repair an older building that you bought to make it suitable to rent, the cost of the work is considered a capital expense.

Construction soft costs

You may have certain costs relating to the period you were constructing, renovating or altering your rental building to make it more suitable to rent. These expenses are sometimes called soft costs. They include:

Soft costs for the period of construction, renovation or alteration of a building are made-up of the soft costs related to the building and ownership of the related land. The building's related land consists of the land:

Depending on your situation, soft costs may be deductible as a current expense or added to the cost of the building.

Soft costs related to the building may be deductible as a current expense if they relate to:

We consider the period of construction, renovation or alteration to be completed on whichever date is earlier:

When these conditions are met, the amount of soft costs related to the building that you can deduct is limited to the amount of rental income earned from the building.

Soft costs that do not meet the above conditions can be added to the capital cost of the building and not the land.

CCA, landscaping costs and disability-related modifications to the buildings' costs are not subject to the soft cost rules.

For more information on CCA, see Chapter 4.

For more information on landscaping costs, see Landscaping costs.

For more information on costs for disability-related modifications, see Modifications to rental properties to accommodate persons with disabilities.

Personal portion

If you rent part of the building where you live, you can claim the amount of your expenses that relate to the rented area of the building. You have to divide the expenses that relate to the whole property between your personal part and the rented area. You can split the expenses using square metres or the number of rooms you are renting in the building.

For example, if you rent 4 rooms of your 10-room house, you can deduct:

If you rent rooms in your home to a lodger or roommate, you can claim all of the expenses for the part you are renting. You can also claim a portion of the expenses for the rooms in your home that you are not renting and that both you and your lodger or roommate use. You can use factors such as availability for use or the number of persons sharing the room to calculate the allowable expenses. You can also calculate these amounts by estimating the percentage of time the lodger or roommate spends in these rooms (for example, the kitchen and living room).

Fill in "Part 4 – Expenses" on Form T776 as follows:

If you are a co-owner or partner in a partnership, enter the personal portion of the expenses for all co-owners or partners at line 9949.

You cannot claim the expenses for renting part of your property if you have no reasonable expectation of making a profit.

For more information on renting part of your personal residence, see Changing part of your principal residence to a rental property. For more information on business-use-of-home expenses, see Line 9945 – Business-use-of-home expenses in Guide T4002, Self-employed Business, Professional, Commission, Farming, and Fishing Income.

Example

Patrick rents out 3 rooms of his 12-room house. He is not sure how to split the expenses when he reports his rental income. His expenses were property taxes, electricity, insurance and the cost of advertising for tenants in the local newspaper.

Patrick can claim the part of his expenses that relate to the area of the property he rented in the current tax year. Since he rented 25% of his residence (3 out of 12 rooms), he can deduct 25% of his property taxes, electricity and insurance costs from his rental income. He can deduct the full amount of the advertising expense, since this expense relates only to the rented area.

When he completes Form T776, Patrick enters the full amount of each expense in the "Total expense" column. Then, in the "Personal portion" column, he shows the part of each expense that relates to his personal use. In this case, he enters 75% of the property taxes, electricity and insurance costs for the property. He will not enter anything for advertising in the "Personal portion" column.

Patrick can also claim CCA on the rented area of the property if it does not create or increase a rental loss and he is not designating the building as his principal residence.

Expenses you can deduct

Prepaid expenses

A prepaid expense is an expense you paid for ahead of time. Under the accrual method of accounting, claim the expense you prepay in the year or years in which you get the related benefit.

Under the cash method of accounting, you cannot deduct a prepaid expense amount (other than for inventory) relating to a tax year that is two or more years after the year the expense is paid. However, you can deduct the part of an amount you paid in a previous year for benefits received in the current tax year. These amounts are deductible as long as you have not previously deducted them.

Example

Catherine paid $2,100 for insurance on her rental property. The insurance was for the current tax year and the two following years. Although she paid the insurance for three years, she can deduct only the part that applies to the current tax year from her gross rental income.

Catherine can deduct $700 in the current tax year and $700 in each of the following two years.

For more information, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-417, Prepaid Expenses and Deferred Charges.

Line 8521 – Advertising

You can deduct expenses for advertising, including advertising in Canadian newspapers and on Canadian television and radio stations. You can also include any amount you paid as a finder's fee.

Line 8690 – Insurance

You can deduct the premiums you pay on your rental property for the current year. If your policy gives coverage for more than one year, deduct only the premiums related to the current year. Deduct the remaining premiums in the year(s) to which they relate.

Line 8710 – Interest and bank charges

You can deduct the interest charge on money you borrow to buy or improve your rental property. If you have interest expenses that relate to the construction or renovation period, see Construction soft costs.

You can also deduct interest charges you paid to tenants on rental deposits. If you are claiming interest as a rental expense on Form T776, do not include it as a carrying charge on Form 5000-D1, Worksheet for the return (for all except non-residents).

Do not deduct in full for the year any lump-sum amount paid for interest or a fee paid to reduce the interest rate on a mortgage. You prorate these amounts for the rest of the original term of the mortgage or loan. You also prorate a penalty or bonus paid to a financial institution to pay off your mortgage loan before it is due.

For example, if the term of your loan or mortgage is five years and in the third year you pay a fee to reduce your interest rate, treat this fee as a prepaid expense and deduct it over the remaining term of the loan or mortgage.

You can deduct certain fees when you get a mortgage or loan to buy or improve your rental property. If the loans relate to the construction or renovation period, first read about soft costs.

Loan fees include:

You deduct these fees over a period of five years, regardless of the term of your loan. Deduct 20% (100% divided by five years = 20%) in the current tax year and 20% in each of the following four years. The 20% limit is reduced proportionally for fiscal periods of less than 12 months.

If you repay the loan before the end of the five-year period, you can deduct the remaining financing fees then. The number of years for which you can deduct these fees is not related to the term of your loan.

If you incur standby charges, guarantee fees, service fees or any other similar fees, you may be able to deduct them in full in the year you incur them. For more information, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-341, Expenses of Issuing or Selling Shares, Units in a Trust, Interests in a Partnership or Syndicate and Expenses of Borrowing Money.

You can choose to treat finance fees you paid and the interest on money you borrowed to acquire depreciable property as capital expenses.

If you refinance your rental property to get money for a business or other investments, you may be able to claim the interest expenses on Form 5000-D1, Worksheet for the return (for all except non-residents). See line 22100 in the Federal Income Tax and Benefit Guide, or the "Expenses" chapter in Guide T4002, Self-employed Business, Professional, Commission, Farming, and Fishing Income. If the funds are for personal use, you cannot deduct the interest expenses.

You were asking?

Q. I own and rent a semi-detached house. This year, I refinanced the property to increase the mortgage because I needed money for a down payment on my personal residence. Can I deduct the additional interest on the mortgage against my rental income?

A. No. You are making personal use of the funds you got from refinancing your rental property. As a result, you cannot deduct the additional interest when you calculate your net income or loss from your rental property.

Line 8810 – Office expenses

You can deduct the cost of office expenses. These include small items such as pens, pencils, paper clips, stationery and stamps. Office expenses do not include capital expenditures to acquire capital property such as calculators, filing cabinets, chairs and a desk. These are capital items.

Line 8860 – Professional fees (includes legal and accounting fees)

You can deduct fees for legal services to prepare leases or collect overdue rents. If you incur legal fees to buy your rental property, you cannot deduct them from your gross rental income. Instead, divide the fees between land and building and add them to their respective cost. For example, you buy a property worth $200,000 ($50,000 for the land and $150,000 for the building) and incur legal fees of $10,000. Split the $10,000 proportionately between the land and building. In this case, $2,500 is added to the cost of the land (for a total of $52,500) and $7,500 is added to the cost of the building (for a total of $157,500). For more information, see Land.

Note

The legal fees you paid when selling your rental property are deducted from your proceeds of disposition when calculating your capital gain or loss. The deduction for legal fees also applies when calculating a recapture of CCA or a terminal loss.

You can also deduct expenses you had for bookkeeping services, audits of your records and preparing financial statements. You may be able to deduct fees and expenses for advice and help to prepare your income tax return and any related information returns.

Line 8871 – Management and administration fees

You can deduct the amounts paid to a person or a company to manage your property. You can also deduct amounts paid or payable to agents for collecting rents or finding new tenants.

If you paid commissions to a real estate agent when selling your rental property, include them as "Outlays and expenses" on Schedule 3, Capital Gains (or Losses), when you report the disposition of your property.

Line 8960 – Repairs and maintenance

You can deduct the cost of labour and materials for any minor repairs or maintenance done to property you use to earn income. You cannot deduct the value of your own labour.

You cannot deduct costs you incur for repairs that are capital in nature. However, you can claim capital cost allowance.

Line 9060 – Salaries, wages and benefits

You can deduct amounts paid or payable to superintendents, maintenance personnel and others you employ to take care of your rental property. You cannot deduct the value of your own services.

As the employer, you must deduct your part of Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan contributions and employment insurance premiums. You can also deduct workers' compensation amounts payable on employees' remuneration and Provincial Parental Insurance Plan (PPIP) premiums. The PPIP is an income replacement plan for residents of Quebec. For details, contact Revenu Québec. For more information on making payroll deductions, go to Payroll.

You can also deduct any insurance premiums you pay for an employee for a sickness, an accident, a disability or an income insurance plan.

For more information on wages, see Guide T4001, Employer's Guide – Payroll Deductions and Remittances.

Line 9180 – Property taxes

You can deduct property taxes you incurred for your rental property for the period it was available for rent. For example, you can deduct property taxes for the land and building where your rental property is situated. For more information, see Vacant land and Construction soft costs.

Line 9200 – Travel

You can deduct travel expenses you incur to collect rents, supervise repairs and manage your properties. Travelling expenses include the cost of getting to your rental property but do not include board and lodging, which we consider to be personal expenses. To claim the travel expenses you incur, you need to meet the same requirements discussed at Line 9281 – Motor vehicle expenses.

Line 9220 – Utilities

You can deduct expenses for utilities, such as gas, oil, electricity, water and cable, if your rental arrangement specifies that you pay for the utilities of your rental space or units.

Line 9281 – Motor vehicle expenses (not including capital cost allowance)

You can deduct motor vehicle expenses in the following circumstances:

This applies whether your rental properties are located in or outside the general area where you live. Your rental properties have to be located in at least two different sites, away from your principal residence. The motor vehicle expenses that we consider to be reasonable depend on the circumstances of your situation.

For the definition of motor vehicle, see Definitions.

For information on how to calculate the motor vehicle expenses, see Guide T4002, Self-employed Business, Professional, Commission, Farming, and Fishing Income.

Line 9270 – Other expenses

There are expenses you can incur to earn rental income other than those listed on Form T776. We cover some of them in the following sections. Enter on this line the total of other expenses you incurred to earn income, as long as you did not include them on a previous line.

Landscaping costs

You can deduct the cost of landscaping the grounds around your rental property only in the year you paid the cost, even if you use the accrual method for calculating your rental income.

Lease cancellation payments

You can deduct amounts paid or payable to tenants to cancel their leases. The deductible amount is calculated as follows:

If you made the cancellation payment in the year:

Cancellation payment × Number of days to the end of the year when payment is made ÷ Number of days left on the lease

If you made the cancellation payment in a previous year:

Cancellation payment × Number of days in the year left on the lease ÷ Number of days left on the lease

For this calculation, the life of the lease (including all renewal periods) cannot be longer than 40 years.

Example

Samir is a landlord. He paid his tenant $1,000 to cancel a lease on August 18 of the current tax year. The lease was due to expire on December 31 of the next year. When he made the payment, there were 135 days left in the current year and 500 days left on the lease.

For the current tax year, Samir deducts $270, calculated as follows:

$1,000 × 135 ÷ 500 = $270

For the next year, Samir deducts $730 calculated as follows:

$1,000 × 365 ÷ 500 = $730

If you dispose of the property, the tax treatment will vary depending on your situation. For more information, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-359, Premiums and Other Amounts with Respect to Leases.

Condominium fees

If you earn rental income from a condominium unit, you can deduct the expenses that you would usually deduct from it. You can also deduct condominium fees that represent your share of the upkeep, repairs, maintenance and other current expenses of the common property. For more information, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-304, Condominiums.

Vacant land

You might earn rental income from vacant land. You can deduct your operating expenses from this income. There are limits on how much you can deduct for both:

The amount you can deduct for these two expenses is limited to the amount of rental income left after you have deducted all other expenses. You cannot create or increase a rental loss, or reduce other sources of income, by claiming a deduction for interest or property taxes. They can be added to the cost of the land. This will decrease your capital gain or increase your capital loss when you dispose of the land.

You cannot deduct your mortgage interest and property taxes for vacant land if you are not earning any income from that land. You cannot add these expenses to the adjusted cost base of your land. In addition, you cannot deduct income taxes, profit taxes or land transfer taxes you have for the vacant land.

For more information on vacant land, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-153, Land Developers – Subdivision and Development Costs and Carrying Charges on Land, and Interpretation Bulletin IT-456, Capital Property – Some Adjustments to Cost Base, and its Special Release.

You were asking?

Q. In 1995, I bought vacant land as an investment. In the current tax year, I rented this land to a farmer for pasture. Can I deduct my mortgage interest and property taxes from my rental income?

A. Yes. After deducting all your other allowable expenses, you can deduct the amount of your mortgage interest and property taxes for the year that you need to reduce your remaining rental income to zero. If you do not need to use the full amount of your taxes and interest, you can add the rest to the adjusted cost base of the land.

Expenses you cannot deduct

Land transfer taxes

You cannot deduct land transfer taxes you paid when you bought your property. Add these amounts to the cost of the property.

Mortgage principal

You cannot deduct the repayments of principal on your mortgage or loan on your rental property. For more information about the interest part of your mortgage, see Line 8710 – Interest and bank charges.

Penalties

You cannot deduct any penalties shown on your notice of assessment or notice of reassessment.

Value of your own labour

You cannot deduct the value of your own services or labour.

Line 9949 – Total for personal portion

Enter the total amount from the column called "Personal portion." For more information, see Personal portion.

Deductible expenses

Your deductible expenses are your total expenses minus your total personal expenses.

Line 9369 – Net income (loss) before adjustments

Enter the gross income minus the deductible expenses (line 8299 minus amount 4). This amount is the net rental income of all co-owners or partners before any claim for CCA.

Co-owners – Your share of line 9369

If you are a co-owner, enter your share of the amount from line 9369 on amount 5. This amount is based on your share of ownership of the rental property.

If you are a co-owner or partner, also fill in Part 2 – Details of other co-owners and partners.

Line 9945 – Other expenses of the co-owner

Enter the amount of deductible expenses you have as a co-owner that you did not deduct elsewhere.

Line 9947 – Recaptured capital cost allowance

If you had a recapture of CCA, enter that amount at this line. If you are a co-owner, enter your share of the amount.

Line 9948 – Terminal loss

Enter any terminal loss amount you had on the sale of rental property at this line. If you are a co-owner, enter your share of the amount.

Line 9936 – Total capital cost allowance claim for the year

Enter the amount of your total CCA claim for the year from amount i in Area A. For information on how to calculate CCA, see Chapter 4.

If you are a partner in a partnership that does not need to issue you a T5013 slip, enter the total CCA allocated on the financial statements the partnership gave you.

Do not use the amount at line 9936 if you are a member of a partnership that has to file Form T5013SUM, Summary of Partnership Income. Your CCA amount is already included in box 110 of your T5013 slip.

Net income (loss)

Enter your net income (loss) at amount 9.

Amount 10 – Partnerships

If you are a member of a partnership, enter your share of amount 9 or the amount from box 107 or 110 from your T5013 slip.

Line 9974 – GST/HST rebate for partners received in the year

If you received a GST/HST rebate for partners, report the amount of the rebate that relates to the eligible expenses other than the CCA at line 9974.

Line 9943 – Other expenses of the partner

Enter the amount of deductible expenses you have as a partner that you did not deduct elsewhere on Form T776.

Line 9946 – Your net income (loss)

This is the amount of your net income or loss for the tax year. Enter the amount from line 9946 on line 12600 of your income tax return.

Rental losses

You have a rental loss if your rental expenses are more than your gross rental income. If you incur the expenses to earn income, you can deduct your rental loss against your other sources of income.

Renting below fair market value

You can deduct your expenses only if you incur them to earn an income. In certain cases, you may ask your son or daughter, or anyone else living with you, to pay a small amount for the upkeep of your house or to cover the cost of groceries. You do not report this amount in your income, and you cannot claim rental expenses. This is a cost-sharing arrangement, so you cannot claim a rental loss.

If you lose money because you rent a property to a person you know for less money than you would to a person you do not know, you cannot claim a rental loss. When your rental expenses are consistently more than your rental income, you may not be allowed to claim a rental loss because your rental operation is not considered to be a source of income. You can claim a rental loss if you are renting the property to a relative for the same rate as you would charge other tenants and you expect to make a profit.

Chapter 4 – Capital cost allowance

Find out what capital cost allowance is

You might acquire a depreciable property, such as a building, furniture or equipment, to use in your rental activities. You cannot deduct the cost of the property when you calculate your net rental income for the year.

However, since these properties may wear out or become obsolete over time, you can deduct their cost over a period of several years. The deduction is called capital cost allowance (CCA).

You can usually claim CCA on a property when it becomes available for use.

Amount of CCA you can claim

The CCA you can claim depends on the type of property you own and the date you acquired it. Group the depreciable property you own into classes. A specific rate of CCA generally applies to each class. We explain the most common classes of depreciable rental property and the rates that apply to each class under Classes of depreciable property in this guide.

For the most part, use the declining balance method to calculate your CCA, as it is the most common one. This means that you apply the CCA rate to the capital cost of the depreciable property. Over the life of the property, the rate is applied against the remaining balance. The remaining balance declines each year that you claim CCA.

Example

Last year, Abeer bought a rental building for $60,000. On her income tax return for last year, she claimed CCA of $1,200 on the building. This year, Abeer bases her CCA claim on her remaining balance of $58,800 ($60,000 $1,200).

You do not have to claim the maximum amount of CCA in any given year. You can claim any amount you like, from zero to the maximum allowed for the year. If you do not have to pay income tax for the year, you may not want to claim CCA. Claiming CCA reduces the balance of the class by the amount of CCA claimed. As a result, the amount of CCA available for you to claim in future years will be reduced.

Note

If you are a partner in a partnership, the amount of CCA you can claim has already been determined by the partnership. If you receive a T5013 slip, your CCA amount is already included in box 110. If you are a partner in a partnership that does not need to issue this slip, the total partnership CCA will be shown on the financial statements you receive.

Limits on CCA

In the year you acquire rental property, you can usually claim CCA only on one-half of your net additions to a class. This is the half-year rule (also known as the 50% rule) which we explain under Column 9 – Adjustment for current-year additions subject to the half-year rule. The available-for-use rules may also affect the amount of CCA you can claim.

In the year you dispose of rental property, you may have to add an amount to your income as a recapture of CCA or deduct an amount from your income as a terminal loss. We explain recapture and terminal loss under Column 6 – UCC after additions and dispositions.

If you own more than one rental property, you have to calculate your overall net income or loss for the year from all your rental properties before you can claim CCA. If you are a partner, include the net rental income or loss from your T5013 slip in the calculation. Combine the rental income and loss from all your properties, even if they belong to different classes. This also applies to furniture, fixtures and appliances that you use in your rental building. You can claim CCA for these properties, the building, or both.

You cannot use CCA to create or increase a rental loss. Do not apply the half-year rule to accelerated investment incentive properties or zero-emission vehicles.

Example

Salvador owns three rental properties. Two of these properties are Class 1 buildings and one is a Class 3 building. All the buildings contain Class 8 appliances. Salvador's net rental income from these properties is as follows:

Net rental income for the 3 buildings
Building Net rental income (or loss)
1 (Class 1) $1,500
2 (Class 1) $2,000
3 (Class 3) ($4,000)
Total ($500)

Salvador has an overall net loss of $500. Since he is not allowed to increase his rental loss by claiming CCA, he cannot claim any CCA on his rental buildings or appliances.

For more information about loss restrictions on rental and leasing properties, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-195, Rental Property – Capital Cost Allowance Restrictions, and Interpretation Bulletin IT-443, Leasing Property – Capital Cost Allowance Restrictions, and its Special Release.

Classes of depreciable property

This section explains the most common classes of depreciable rental property and the rates that apply to each class.

If you need more information, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-79, Capital Cost Allowance – Buildings or Other Structures.

A condominium unit in a building belongs to the same class as the building. For example, if you own a condominium in a building that is a Class 3 property, the unit in the building is a Class 3 rental property. If the whole building qualifies as a Class 31 or Class 32 rental property (a MURB), then each unit within the building is a Class 31 or 32 rental property.

For more information on CCA and condominiums, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-304, Condominiums.

Leasehold interest in real property that is a rental property

A leasehold interest is the interest of a tenant in any leased tangible property.

If you are a taxpayer or partnership and own a leasehold interest in a real property that is a rental property, include the leasehold interest in Class 1, 3, 6 or 13 (or Class 3, 6 or 13 for tax years before 1988).

It may be necessary in some situations to divide the capital cost of a leasehold interest into more than one prescribed class. For example, where you expend an amount to obtain a leasehold interest in land and construct a building that falls into Class 3, the capital cost of acquiring the lease will be included in Class 13 and the capital cost of the building will be included in Class 3.

Class 1 (4%)

A rental building may belong to Classes 1, 3, 6, 31 or 32, depending on what the building is made of and the date you acquire it. You also include in these classes the parts that make up the building, such as:

Note

Most land is not depreciable property. When you acquire property, only include the cost that relates to the building in Area A and Area C. Enter at line 9923 in Area F the cost of all land additions in the year. For more information, see Area F – Land additions and dispositions in the year and Column 3 – Cost of additions in the year.

Class 1 includes most buildings acquired after 1987, unless they specifically belong to another class. Class 1 also includes the cost of certain additions or alterations you made after 1987 to a Class 1 building or certain buildings of another class.

The CCA rate for eligible non-residential buildings acquired by a taxpayer after March 18, 2007, and used in Canada to manufacture or process goods for sale or lease includes an additional allowance of 6% for a total rate of 10%. The CCA rate for other eligible non-residential buildings includes an additional allowance of 2% for a total rate of 6%.

To be eligible for one of the additional allowances, you must elect to put a building in a separate class. To make the election, attach a letter to your return for the tax year in which you acquired the building. If you do not file an election to put it in a separate class, the 4% rate will apply.

The additional allowance applies to buildings acquired after March 18, 2007, (including a new building, if any part of it is acquired after March 18, 2007, when the building was under construction on March 19, 2007) that have not been used or acquired for use before March 19, 2007.

To be eligible for the additional 6% allowance, you must use at least 90% of the building (measured by square footage) in Canada for the designated purpose at the end of the tax year. Manufacturing and processing buildings that do not meet the 90% used test are eligible for the additional 2% allowance. Eligibility applies if at least 90% of the building is used in Canada for non-residential purposes at the end of the tax year.

Class 3 (5%)

Most buildings acquired before 1988 are included in Class 3 or Class 6.

If you acquired a building before 1990 that does not fall in Class 6, you can include it in Class 3 with a CCA rate of 5% if one of the following situations applies:

Include in Class 3 the cost of any additions or alterations made after 1987 to a Class 3 building that does not exceed the lesser of the following two amounts:

Any amount that exceeds the lesser amount above should be included in Class 1.

Class 6 (10%)

Buildings made of frame, log, stucco on frame, galvanized iron or corrugated metal should be included in Class 6 with a CCA rate of 10%. In addition, one of the following conditions has to apply:

If any of the above conditions apply, add to Class 6 the full cost of all the building's additions and alterations.

If none of the above conditions apply, include the building in Class 6 if one of the following situations applies:

Include in Class 6 certain greenhouses and fences.

For additions or alterations to such buildings:

For more information, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-79, Capital Cost Allowance – Buildings or Other Structures.

Class 8 (20%)

Class 8 with a CCA rate of 20% includes certain property that is not included in another class. Examples include furniture, household appliances, a tool costing $500 or more, some fixtures, machinery, outdoor advertising signs, refrigeration equipment and other equipment you use in your rental operation.

Photocopiers and electronic communications equipment, such as fax machines and electronic telephone equipment are also included in Class 8.

Note

If this equipment costs $1,000 or more, you can elect to have it included in a separate class. The CCA rate will not change but a separate CCA deduction can now be calculated for a five-year period. When all the property in the class is disposed of, the undepreciated capital cost (UCC) is fully deductible as a terminal loss. Any UCC balance left in the separate class at the end of the fifth year has to be transferred back to the general class in which it would belong. To make an election, attach a letter to your income tax return for the tax year in which you acquired the property. If you are filing electronically, mail your letter to your tax centre. You can find your tax centre's address at Find a CRA address.

Class 10 (30%)

Class 10 with a CCA rate of 30% includes general-purpose electronic data processing equipment (commonly called "computer hardware") and systems software for that equipment, including ancillary data processing equipment, if you acquired them either:

Class 10 also includes motor vehicles, as well as some passenger vehicles.

Include passenger vehicles in Class 10 unless they meet the Class 10.1 conditions.

Eligible zero-emission vehicles are now included in Class 54.

Class 10.1 (30%)

Your passenger vehicle can belong to either Class 10 or Class 10.1.

To determine the class your passenger vehicle belongs to, you have to use the cost of the vehicle before you add the GST/HST or the provincial sales tax (PST).

Include your passenger vehicle in Class 10.1 if you bought it in your 2021 fiscal period and it cost more than $30,000. List each Class 10.1 vehicle separately.

We consider the capital cost of a Class 10.1 vehicle to be $30,000, plus the related GST/HST, or PST. The $30,000 amount is the capital cost limit for a passenger vehicle.

Note

Use the GST rate of 5% and the appropriate PST rate for your province or territory. If your province is a participating province, use the appropriate HST rate. For more information on the GST and the HST, see Guide RC4022, General Information for GST/HST Registrants.

The following chart will help you to determine if you have a motor vehicle or a passenger vehicle. The chart does not cover every situation, but it gives some of the main definitions for vehicles bought or leased and used to earn income. For more information, see "Keeping motor vehicle records" in Guide T4002, Self-employed Business, Professional, Commission, Farming, and Fishing Income.

Vehicle definitions
Type of vehicle Seating (includes driver) Business use in year bought or leased Vehicle definition
Coupe, sedan, station wagon, sports car or luxury car 1 to 9 1% to 100% passenger
Pick-up truck used to transport goods or equipment 1 to 3 more than 50% motor
Pick-up truck (other than above) 1 to 3 1% to 100% passenger
Pick-up truck with extended cab used to transport goods, equipment or passengers 4 to 9 90% or more motor
Pick-up truck with extended cab (other than above) 4 to 9 1% to 100% passenger
Sport utility vehicle used to transport goods, equipment or passengers 4 to 9 90% or more motor
Sport utility vehicle (other than above) 4 to 9 1% to 100% passenger
Van or minivan used to transport goods or equipment 1 to 3 more than 50% motor
Van or minivan (other than above) 1 to 3 1% to 100% passenger
Van or minivan used to transport goods, equipment or passengers  4 to 9 90% or more motor
Van or minivan (other than above) 4 to 9 1% to 100% passenger

Eligible zero-emission vehicles can now be included in Class 54.

Class 13

The capital cost of a leasehold interest of Class 13 property includes an amount that a tenant spends:

The maximum CCA rate depends on the type of leasehold interest and the terms of the lease.

Certain amounts are not included in the capital cost of a leasehold interest. These include:

For more information on leasehold interests, see Income Tax Folio S3-F4-C1, General Discussion of Capital Cost Allowance.

Class 16 (40%)

Class 16 includes taxis, vehicles you use in a daily car rental business, coin operated video games or pinball machines acquired after February 15, 1984, and freight trucks acquired after December 6, 1991, that are rated above 11,788 kg.

Eligible zero-emission vehicles are now included in Class 55 at a rate of 40%.

Class 31 (5%) and Class 32 (10%)

Class 31 and Class 32 include multiple-unit residential buildings (MURB) certified by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation to which all of the following conditions apply:

If the entire MURB qualifies under Class 31 or 32 rental property, then each unit within the building falls under the same class.

To be included in Class 31 with a CCA rate of 5%, the building must have been acquired after 1979 and before June 18, 1987.

To be included in Class 32 with a CCA rate of 10%, the building must have been acquired before 1980.

Note

For 1994 and following years, you can no longer create or increase a rental loss by claiming CCA on a Class 31 or Class 32 property.

When a MURB no longer qualifies as a Class 31 or Class 32 rental property, you have to transfer it to the correct class.

For more information about the 1994 change in the CCA limit on MURBs, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-195, Rental Property – Capital Cost Allowance Restrictions.

Class 43.1 (30%)

Include in Class 43.1 with a CCA rate of 30% electrical vehicle charging stations (EVCSs) set up to supply more than 10 kilowatts but less than 90 kilowatts of continuous power. This is for property acquired after March 21, 2016, that has not been used or acquired for use before March 22, 2016.

Class 43.2 (50%)

Include in Class 43.2 with a CCA rate of 50% EVCSs set up to supply 90 kilowatts and more of continuous power. This is for property acquired for use after March 21, 2016, that has not been used or acquired for use before March 22, 2016.

Class 50 (55%)

Include in Class 50 with a CCA rate of 55% property acquired after March 18, 2007, that is general-purpose electronic data processing equipment and systems software for that equipment, including ancillary data processing equipment.

Do not include property that is included in Class 29 or Class 52 or that is mainly or is used mainly as:

  1. electronic process control or monitor equipment
  2. electronic communications control equipment
  3. systems software for equipment referred to in a) or b)
  4. data handling equipment (other than data handling equipment that is ancillary to general-purpose electronic data processing equipment)

Class 53 (50%)

Include in Class 53 with a CCA rate of 50% eligible machinery and equipment that is acquired after 2015 and before 2026 (that would generally otherwise be included in Class 29) to be used in Canada primarily in the manufacturing or processing of goods for sale or lease.

Class 54 (30%) and Class 55 (40%) – Zero-emission vehicles

There are two CCA classes for zero-emission vehicles acquired after March 18, 2019. Class 54 was created for zero-emission vehicles that would otherwise be included in Class 10 or 10.1, with the same CCA rate of 30%. Class 55 was created for zero-emission vehicles otherwise included in Class 16, with the same CCA rate of 40%. The CCA still applies on a declining-balance basis.

An enhanced first-year CCA deduction with the following phase-out period is available:

The enhanced first-year allowance will be calculated by:

The CCA will be applicable on any remaining balance in the new classes using the specific rate for the new class.

A taxpayer may elect to not include in Class 54 or 55 a vehicle that would otherwise be a zero-emission vehicle or a zero-emission passenger vehicle. When such an election is filed, the vehicle will no longer be considered to be a zero-emission vehicle or a zero-emission passenger vehicle. As a result, the vehicle will be included in its usual CCA Class 10, 10.1 or 16 as the case may be. Such vehicles will not qualify for the enhanced first-year CCA under the ZEV rules. However those vehicles, that will be included in Class 10, 10.1 or 16, may be eligible for enhanced CCA under the accelerated investment incentive property (AIIP) rules.

The election must be filed with the Minister of National Revenue in your income tax return for the tax year in which the vehicle is acquired. There is no provision for late-filing or amended elections.

Class 54 (30%)

Include in Class 54 zero-emission vehicles that are not included in Class 16 or 55 and would normally be included in Class 10 or 10.1.

There is a limit of $55,000 (plus federal and provincial sales taxes) on the capital cost for each zero-emission passenger vehicle in Class 54. Class 54 may include both zero-emission passenger vehicles that do and do not exceed the prescribed threshold. However, unlike Class 10.1, Class 54 does not establish a separate class for each vehicle whose cost exceeds the threshold.

If a zero-emission passenger vehicle is disposed of to a person or partnership with whom you deal at arm's length, and its cost exceeds the prescribed amount, the proceeds of disposition will be adjusted based on a factor equal to the prescribed amount as a proportion of the actual cost of the vehicle. For dispositions made after July 29, 2019, the actual cost of the vehicle will also be adjusted for the payment or repayment of Government assistance.

Example

First-year enhanced allowance
Acquisition cost $60,000
First-year CCA $55,000 × 100% = $55,000
Undepreciated capital cost (UCC) $55,000 $55,000 = 0
Proceeds of disposition $30,000
Part of proceeds of disposition to be deducted from the UCC $30,000 × ($55,000 ÷ $60,000) = $27,500
Class 55 (40%)

Include in Class 55 zero-emission vehicles that would normally be included in Class 16.

Class 56 (30%)

The new Class 56 (CCA rate of 30%) includes zero-emission automotive equipment and vehicles (other than motor vehicles) that does not currently benefit from the accelerated rate provided by Classes 54 and 55. To be included in this class, such property needs to be acquired after March 1, 2020, and become available for use before 2028.

The enhanced first-year CCA deduction for this class applies only for the tax year in which the equipment or vehicle first becomes available for use. The deduction is subject to the following phase-out period:

To be eligible for the enhanced first-year allowance, a vehicle or equipment must be automotive (that is, self-propelled) and fully electric or powered by hydrogen. Vehicles or equipment that are powered partially by electricity or hydrogen (which includes hybrid vehicles and vehicles that require human or animal power for propulsion) are not eligible.

Class 56 captures automotive equipment that is not designed for use on highways or streets such as zero-emission aircraft, watercraft, trolley buses and railway locomotives. Additions or alterations may qualify if they convert automotive equipment (other than a motor vehicle) into a zero-emission property.

The CCA is deductible on any remaining balance in the new class on a declining-balance basis, at the CCA rate of 30%.

You may elect to not include the vehicle or equipment in Class 56. As a result, you then include the property in the class for which it would otherwise be eligible.

Class 56 excludes property in respect of which CCA or a terminal loss has previously been claimed by another person or partnership where the equipment was acquired by the taxpayer on a tax-deferred "rollover" basis or it was previously owned or acquired by the taxpayer or a non-arm's length person or partnership.

How to calculate your CCA

To calculate your current year deduction for CCA, and any recaptured CCA and terminal losses, use Area A of your form. Include only the rental property part.

You may have acquired or disposed of buildings or equipment during your fiscal period. If so, fill in the applicable Area B, C, D or E, whichever applies, before completing Area A.

Note

Even if you are not claiming a deduction for CCA for 2021, fill in the appropriate areas of the form to show any additions or disposals during the year. For more information, see the following section.

Area A – Calculation of capital cost allowance (CCA) claim

Column 1 – Class number

Enter in this column the class numbers of your properties. If this is the first year you are claiming CCA, see Column 3 – Cost of additions in the year below before completing column 1. If you claimed CCA last year, you can get the class numbers of your properties from last year's form.

We discuss the more common types of depreciable properties in Classes of depreciable property.

Separate classes

Generally, if you own several properties in the same CCA class, combine the capital cost of all these properties into one class. Then enter the total of the combined properties that are represented under one class in Area A's calculation table. If you acquired a rental property after 1971 and it had a capital cost of $50,000 or more, you have to put it in a separate class. Calculate your CCA separately for each rental property that is in a separate class. Do this by listing the rental property on a separate line in Area A's calculation table. For CCA purposes, the capital cost is the part of the price that relates to the building only.

When you dispose of a rental property that you have set up in a separate class in Area A's calculation table, you base any CCA recapture or terminal loss only on the disposition of that rental property. When calculating these amounts, do not consider any other rental property you own that has the same class number as the rental property you disposed of. For more information on recapture of CCA and terminal losses, see Column 6 – UCC after additions and dispositions.

For more information about CCA for rental properties with a capital cost of over $50,000, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-274, Rental Properties – Capital cost of $50,000 or more.

Column 2 – Undepreciated capital cost (UCC) at the start of the year

If this is the first year you are claiming CCA, skip this column. Otherwise, enter in this column the UCC for each class at the end of last year. Enter these amounts from column 13 from your 2020 form.

From your UCC at the start of 2021, subtract any investment tax credit (ITC) you claimed or were refunded in 2020. Also, subtract any 2020 ITC you carried back to a year before 2020.

In 2020, you may have received a GST/HST input tax credit for a passenger vehicle you used less than 90% of the time for your business. In this case, subtract the amount of the credit you got from your 2021 opening UCC. See Grants, subsidies and other incentives or inducements.

Note

In 2021, you may be claiming, carrying back or getting a refund of an ITC. If you still have depreciable property in the class, you have to adjust, in 2022, the UCC of the class to which the property belongs. To do this, subtract the amount of the credit from the UCC at the start of 2022. When there is no property left in the class, report the amount of the ITC as income in 2022.

Column 3 – Cost of additions in the year

If you acquire or make improvements to depreciable property in the year, we consider them to be additions to the class in which the rental property belongs. You should:

If a chart asks for the personal part of a property, this refers to the part you use personally, separate from the part you use for business. For example, if you use 25% of the building you live in for your business, your personal part is the remaining 75%.

Do not include the value of your labour in the cost of a rental property you build or improve. Include the cost of surveying or valuing a rental property you acquire. Remember that a rental property usually has to be available for use before you can claim CCA.

If you received insurance proceeds to reimburse you for the loss or destruction of depreciable property, enter the amount you spent to replace the property in column 3 of Area A, as well as in Area B or C, whichever applies.

Include the amount of insurance proceeds considered as proceeds of disposition in column 5 of Area A, as well as in column 4 of Area D or E, whichever applies.

If you replaced lost or destroyed property, special rules for replacement property may apply. The replacement property must be acquired within two years of the end of the tax year in which it was lost or destroyed. For more information, see Income Tax Folio S3-F3-C1, Replacement Property.

To find out if any of these special situations apply, see Special situations.

Area B – Equipment additions in the year

List all equipment or other property you acquired or improved in the current tax year. Group them into the applicable classes, and put each class on a separate line. Equipment includes appliances (such as a washer and dryer), maintenance equipment (such as a lawn mower or a snow blower) and other property (such as furniture and some fixtures) you acquire to use in your rental operation. Enter at line 9925 the total rental portion of the cost of the equipment or other property. See also Grants, subsidies and other incentives or inducements.

Area C – Building additions in the year

List the details of all buildings you acquired or improved in 2021. Group the buildings into the applicable classes and put each class on a separate line.

Enter on line 9927 the total business part of the cost of the buildings. The cost includes the purchase price of the building, and any related expenses you should add to the capital cost of the building, such as legal fees, land transfer taxes and mortgage fees.

Land

Generally, land is not a depreciable property. Therefore, you cannot claim CCA on its cost. If you acquire a rental property that includes both land and a building, enter in column 3 of Area C only the cost that relates to the building. To calculate the building's capital cost, you have to split any fees that relate to the buying of the rental property between the land and the building. Related fees may include legal and accounting fees.

Calculate the part of the related fees you can include in the capital cost of the building as follows:

Building value ÷ Total purchase price × Legal, accounting or other fees = The part of the fees you can include in the building's cost

You do not have to split a fee if it relates only to the land, or only to the building. In this case, you would add the amount of the fee to the cost to which it relates; either the land or the building.

Area F – Land additions and dispositions in the year

Enter on line 9923 the total cost of acquiring land in 2021. The cost includes the purchase price of the land plus any related expenses you should add to the capital cost of the land, such as legal fees, land transfer taxes and mortgage fees.

You cannot claim CCA on land. Do not enter this amount in column 3 of Area A.

Column 4 – Cost of additions from column 3 which are AIIPs or ZEVs

Enter in column 4 the cost of additions from column 3 that are eligible accelerated investment incentive property (AIIP), zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) from Class 54 or 55 or zero-emission automotive equipment and vehicles from Class 56. These properties must have become available for use in the year and be eligible for the enhanced allowance or accelerated investment incentive. AIIPs must be acquired after November 20, 2018, ZEVs must be acquired after March 18, 2019, and Class 56 properties must be acquired after March 1, 2020. This number is a part of the total cost of additions in column 3 and cannot be higher than the number in column 3.

If you did not acquire any AIIPs, ZEVs or Class 56 properties, enter "0" in this column.

For more information on the accelerated investment incentive and how it impacts your CCA calculation, go to Accelerated investment incentive.

Note 

If a chart asks for the personal part of a property, this refers to the part you use personally, separate from the part you use for business. For example, if you use 25% of the building you live in for business, your personal part is the other 75%.

Enter in column 5 of Area A for each class, the amount from column 5 of Area D and Area E for the class.

If you received insurance proceeds to reimburse you for the loss or destruction of depreciable property, enter the amount you paid to replace the property in column 5 of Area A, as well as in column 4 of Area B or C, whichever area applies.

Include the amount of insurance proceeds considered as proceeds of disposition in column 5 of Area A, as well as in column 4 of Area D or E, whichever applies. This could include compensation you receive for property that someone destroys, expropriates, steals or damages.

If you dispose of a property for proceeds that are more than it cost you to acquire it (or you receive insurance proceeds for a property that was lost or destroyed that exceed the cost of the property), you will have a capital gain and possibly a recapture of CCA. You may be able to postpone or defer recognition of a capital gain or recapture of CCA in computing income if, among other things, the property disposed of is replaced within certain specified time limits. For more information, see Replacement property and Income Tax Folio S3-F3-C1, Replacement Property.

Special rules may apply if you dispose of a building for less than both its UCC and your capital cost. If this is the case, see Special rules for disposing of a building in the year in Guide T4002. If you dispose of a depreciable property for more than its cost, you will have a capital gain. For more information on capital gains, see Chapter 7. You cannot have a capital loss when you sell depreciable property. However, you may have a terminal loss. For an explanation of terminal losses, see Column 6 – UCC after additions and dispositions below.

For more information on proceeds of disposition, see Income Tax Folio S3-F4-C1, General Discussion of Capital Cost Allowance.

Area D – Equipment dispositions in the year

List the details of all equipment (including motor vehicles) you disposed of in your 2021 fiscal period. Group the equipment into the applicable classes and put each class on a separate line. Enter on line 9926 the total business part of the proceeds of disposition of the equipment.

Area E – Building dispositions in the year

List all buildings and leasehold interests you disposed of in the current tax year. Group the buildings and leasehold interests into the applicable classes, and put each class on a separate line. Enter at line 9928 the total amount for the rental portion from the proceeds of disposition of the buildings and leasehold interests.

Area F – Land additions and dispositions in the year

Enter on line 9924 the total of all amounts you received or will receive for disposing of land in the fiscal period.

Column 6 – UCC after additions and dispositions

The undepreciated capital cost (UCC) amount for column 6 is the initial UCC amount at the start of the year in column 2 plus the cost of additions in column 3 minus the proceeds of dispositions in column 5.

You cannot claim CCA when the amount in column 6 is:

In either case, enter "0" in column 13.

Recapture of CCA

If the amount in column 6 is negative, you have a recapture of CCA. Enter your recapture amount on line 9947, "Recaptured capital cost allowance," in part 4 of Form T776.

A recapture of CCA can happen if the proceeds from the sale of depreciable rental property are more than the total of the following amounts:

A recapture of CCA can also occur, for example, when you get a government grant or claim an investment tax credit.

In some cases, you may be able to postpone a recapture of CCA. For example, you may sell a property and replace it with a similar one, someone may expropriate your property, or you may transfer property to a corporation, a partnership or your child.

Terminal loss

If the amount in column 6 is positive and you no longer own any property in that class, you may have a terminal loss. More precisely, you may have a terminal loss when, at the end of a fiscal period, there is no longer any property in the class, but there is still an amount you have not deducted as CCA. You can usually subtract this terminal loss from your rental income in the year you disposed of the depreciable property. If the loss is more than your rental income, you can create a rental loss. Enter your terminal loss on line 9948, Terminal loss.

For more information on recapture of CCA and terminal loss, see Income Tax Folio S3-F4-C1, General Discussion of Capital Cost Allowance.

Note

The rules for recapture of CCA and terminal loss do not apply to passenger vehicles in Class 10.1. To calculate your CCA claim, see the comments in Column 10 – Base amount for CCA.

Column 7 – Proceeds of dispositions available to reduce additions of AIIPs and ZEVs

This column calculates the adjustments under certain circumstances to the additions for the year where there is also a disposition in the year.

When an AIIP and non-AIIP of the same class are purchased during the year and a disposition occurs, the disposition first reduces the undepreciated capital cost of the non-AIIP before reducing the UCC of the AIIP.

To determine which part of your proceeds of dispositions, if any, will reduce the cost of your AIIPZEV or Class 56 additions, take the proceeds of disposition in column 5 minus the cost of additions in the year in column 3 plus the cost of additions for AIIPs, ZEVs or Class 56 properties in column 4. If the result is negative enter "0."

If you did not acquire any AIIPs, ZEVs or Class 56 properties, you do not need to use this column.

Column 8 – UCC adjustment for current-year additions of AIIPs and ZEVs

This column calculates the enhanced UCC amount used to determine the additional CCA for AIIPsZEVs or Class 56 properties.

For this column, reduce the cost of AIIPZEV or Class 56 additions in column 4 by the proceeds of disposition available to reduce the AIIPZEV or Class 56 additions as calculated in column 7. Multiply the result by the following factor:

These factors will change for properties that become available for use after 2023 and the incentive is completely phased out for properties that become available for use after 2027.

If you did not acquire any AIIPs, ZEVs or Class 56 properties, enter "0" in this column.

Column 9 – Adjustment for current-year additions subject to the half-year rule

Generally, in the year you acquire or make additions to a property, you can usually claim CCA on half of your net additions. We call this the half-year rule. You calculate your CCA only on the net adjusted amount. For example, if before November 20, 2018, you acquired a property for $30,000, you would base your CCA claim on $15,000 ($30,000 × 50%) in the year you acquired the property. However, the half-year rule does not apply to AIIPs, ZEVs or Class 56 properties.

Calculate the net first-year additions that are subject to the half-year rule by taking the cost of total additions in column 3, minus AIIP, ZEV and Class 56 additions in column 4, minus proceeds of dispositions in column 5. Enter 50% of the result in column 9. If the result is negative, enter "0."

There are circumstances where the half-year rule does not apply. For example, in a non-arm's length transaction you may buy depreciable property that the seller continuously owned from the day that is at least 364 days before the end of your 2021 fiscal period to the day the property was acquired. However, if you transfer personal property, such as a car or a personal computer, into your business, the half-year rule applies to the particular property transferred.

Also, some properties are not subject to the half-year rule. Some examples are those in Classes 13, 14, 23, 24, 27, 34 and 52, as well as some of those in Class 12, such as small tools. The half-year rule does not apply when the available for use rules denies a CCA claim until the second tax year after you acquire the property.

For more information on the special rules that apply to Class 13, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-464, Capital Cost Allowance – Leasehold Interests. For more information on the half-year rule, see Income Tax Folio S3-F4-C1, General Discussion of Capital Cost Allowance.

Column 10 – Base amount for CCA

The base amount for CCA is the UCC amount after additions, dispositions and the current year adjustments. This is the amount in column 6 plus the amount in column 8 minus the amount in column 9. The CCA rate is applied to this amount.

For a Class 10.1 vehicle you disposed of in your 2021 fiscal period, you may be able to claim 50% of the CCA that would be allowed if you still owned the vehicle at the end of your 2021 fiscal period. This is known as the half-year rule on sale.

You can use the half-year rule on sale if, at the end of your 2020 fiscal period, you owned the Class 10.1 vehicle you disposed of in 2021. If this applies to you, enter 50% of the amount from column 2 (for Class 10.1 vehicles) in column 10.

Column 11 – CCA rate (%)

Enter the prescribed CCA rate (percentage) for each property class you have listed in Area A column 1.

For more information on certain kinds of property, see Classes of depreciable property.

Column 12 – CCA for the year

In column 12, enter the CCA you want to deduct for 2021. You can claim the CCA for the year up to the maximum amount allowed. In Area A, you calculate the maximum amount for column 12 by multiplying the amount in column 10 by the amount in column 11.

In your first year of business, you may have to prorate your CCA claim.

To get your CCA yearly total, add up all amounts in column 12. Enter this result on line 9936, Total capital cost allowance claim for the year. If you are a co-owner, enter only your share of the CCA. To find out how to calculate your CCA claim if you are using the property for both business and personal use, see Personal use of property in Guide T4002.

Column 13 – UCC at the end of the year

The final result in column 13 is the UCC at the end of the year. This is the result of the UCC after additions and dispositions in column 6, minus the amount for capital cost allowance claimed for the year in column 12. The amount in column 13 is the starting UCC balance you will use when you calculate your CCA claim next year. Next year, enter this amount in column 2. If you have a terminal loss or a recapture of CCA, enter "0" in column 13.

The example at the end of this chapter sums up CCA.

Special situations

This section describes the special situations and how the tables in Areas B, C, D and E help break down and display the calculations for these situations.

Changing from personal to rental use

If you bought a property for personal use and then changed the use to a rental in your rental operation in the current tax year, there is a change in use of the property. You need to determine the capital cost of the property at the moment of this change.

If the fair market value (FMV) of a depreciable property (such as equipment or a building) is less than its original cost when you change its use, the amount you put in column 3 of Area B or C is the FMV of the property (excluding the land value if the property includes land and a building). If the FMV is more than the original cost of the property when you change use, use the following chart to determine the amount to enter in column 3.

Note

We consider you to have acquired the land for an amount equal to the FMV when you changed its use. Enter this amount at line 9923 in Area F, "Land additions and dispositions in the year."

Capital cost calculation – change in use

Actual cost of the property

 
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 1

FMV of the property

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 2

Amount from line 1

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 3

Line 2 minus line 3 (if negative, enter "0")

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 4

Enter any capital gains deduction claimed for the amount at line 4.Footnote 1

$ Blank space for dollar value
× 2 =
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 5

Line 4 minus line 5 (if negative, enter "0")

$ Blank space for dollar value
× ½ =
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 6

Capital cost
Line 1 plus line 6

 
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 7

Enter the capital cost of the property from line 7 in column 3 of Area B or C.

Grants, subsidies and other incentives or inducements

If you receive a grant, a subsidy or a rebate from a government or a government agency to buy depreciable property, subtract the amount of the grant, subsidy or rebate from the property's capital cost. Do this before you enter the capital cost in column 3 of Area B or C.

For example, you buy a rental property at a cost of $200,000 ($50,000 for the land and $150,000 for the building) and receive a $50,000 grant. The $50,000 grant is split in a similar way between the land and building. The total cost of the purchase is reduced to $150,000: $37,500 for the land and $112,500 for the building. Enter the reduced capital cost in column 3 of Area B or C. For more information, see Interpretation Bulletin IT-273, Government Assistance – General Comments.

In this case, you can include the amount in your rental income or you can deduct the amount from the capital cost of the rental property. You may get an incentive from a non-government agency to buy depreciable property. For example, you may receive a tax credit that you can use to reduce your income tax payable.

If the purchase price of your property was reduced due to poor quality or for other reasons, see Income Tax Folio S3-F4-C1, General Discussion of Capital Cost Allowance, for more information about how to calculate your capital cost.

Non-arm's length transactions

When you acquire rental property (depreciable property) in a non-arm's length transaction, there are special rules for determining the property's capital cost. These special rules do not apply if you get the property because of someone's death.

You can acquire depreciable property in a non-arm's length transaction from:

If you pay more for the rental property than the seller paid for the same rental property, calculate the cost as follows:

Capital cost calculation
Non-arm's length transaction – resident of Canada

The seller's cost or capital cost

 
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 1

The seller's proceeds of disposition

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 2

Amount from line 1

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 3

Line 2 minus line 3 (if negative, enter "0")

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 4

Enter any capital gains deduction claimed for the amount at line 4.Footnote 2

$ Blank space for dollar value
× 2 =
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 5

Line 4 minus line 5 (if negative, enter "0")

$ Blank space for dollar value
× ½ =
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 6

Capital cost
Line 1 plus line 6

 
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 7

You can also acquire depreciable property in a non-arm's length transaction from:

If you pay more for the rental property than the seller paid for the same rental property, calculate the capital cost as follows:

Capital cost calculation
Non-arm's length transaction – non-resident of Canada)

The seller's cost or capital cost

 
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 1

The seller's proceeds of disposition

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 2

Amount from line 1

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 3

Line 2 minus line 3 (if negative, enter "0")

$ Blank space for dollar value
× ½ =
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 4

Capital cost
Line 1 plus line 4Note 3

 
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 5

If you acquire depreciable property in a non-arm's length transaction and pay less for it than the seller paid, your capital cost is the same amount as the seller paid. The difference between what you paid and what the seller paid is considered to be deducted as CCA. Enter the amount you paid in column 3 of Area A. Enter the same amount in Area B or C, whichever applies.

Example

Teresa bought a refrigerator from her father, Roman, for $400 to use in her rental operation. Roman paid $1,000 for the refrigerator and was using it in his rental operations. Since the amount Teresa paid is less than the amount Roman paid, we consider Teresa's cost to be $1,000. We also consider that Teresa has deducted CCA from the amount of $600 in the past ($1,000 $400).

  • In Area B, Teresa enters $1,000 in column 3, "Total cost."
  • In Area A, she enters $400 in column 3, "Cost of additions in the year," as the addition for the current tax year.

For more information on non-arm's length transactions, see Income Tax Folio S1-F5-C1, Related Persons and Dealing at Arm's Length.

Selling your rental property

If you sell a rental property for more than it cost, you may have a capital gain. List the dispositions of all your rental properties on Schedule 3, Capital Gains (or Losses). For information on how to calculate your taxable capital gain, see Guide T4037, Capital Gains.

If you are a member of a partnership that has a capital gain, the partnership will allocate part of that gain to you. The gain will show on the partnership's financial statements or in box 151 of your T5013 slip. Report the gain at line 17400 of Schedule 3, Capital Gains (or Losses).

Note

You cannot have a capital loss when you sell depreciable property. However, you can have a terminal loss, see Column 6 – UCC after additions and dispositions.

Disposing of a building

If you disposed of a building in the current tax year, special rules may apply making the proceeds of disposition an amount other than the actual proceeds of disposition. This happens when you meet both the following conditions:

To calculate the cost amount:

capital cost of the building ÷ capital cost of all property in the class not previously disposed of × UCC of the class = cost amount of the building

Note

If a building acquired in a non-arm's length transaction was previously used for something other than producing income, the capital cost of the property will need to be recalculated to determine the cost amount of the building.

If you disposed of a building under these conditions, and you or a person with whom you do not deal at arm's length disposed of the land in the same year, calculate your deemed proceeds of disposition as shown in Calculation A below.

If you, or a person with whom you do not deal at arm's length, did not dispose of the land in the same year as the building, calculate your deemed proceeds of disposition for the building as shown in Calculation B.

Calculation A – Land and building disposed of in the same year

1. FMV of the building when you disposed of it

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 1

2. FMV of the land just before you disposed of it

+ Blank space for dollar value
Line 2

3. Line 1 plus line 2

= $ Blank space for dollar value
>
$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 3

4. Seller's adjusted cost base of the land

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 4

5. Total capital gains (without reserves) from any disposition of the land (such as a change in use) by you, or by a person not dealing at arm's length with you, in the three-year period before you disposed of the building, to you or to another person not dealing at arm's length with you

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 5

6. Line 4 minus line 5 (if negative, enter "0")

= $ Blank space for dollar value
Line 6

7. Line 2 or line 6, (whichever amount is less)

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 7

8. Line 3 minus line 7 (if negative, enter "0")

= $ Blank space for dollar value
Line 8

9. Cost amount of the building just before you disposed of it

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 9

10. Capital cost of the building just before you disposed of it

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 10

11. Line 9 or line 10, whichever amount is less

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 11

12. Line 1 or line 11, whichever amount is more

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 12

Deemed proceeds of disposition of the building

13. Line 8 or line 12, whichever amount is less (enter this amount from line 13 in column 3 of Area E and include it in column 5 of Area A)

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 13

Deemed proceeds of disposition of the land

14. Proceeds of disposition of the land and building

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 14

15. Amount from line 13

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 15

16. Line 14 minus line 15 (enter this amount at line 9924 of Area F)

= $ Blank space for dollar value
Line 16

If you have a terminal loss on the building, include it at line 9948, Terminal loss.

Calculation B – Land and building disposed of in different years

1. Cost amount of the building just before you disposed of it

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 1

2. FMV of the building just before you disposed of it

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 2

3. Line 1 or line 2, whichever amount is more

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 3

4. Actual proceeds of disposition, if any

$ Blank space for dollar value
Line 4

5. Line 3 minus line 4

= $ Blank space for dollar value
Line 5

6. Amount from line 5

$ Blank space for dollar value
× ½
= $ Blank space for dollar value
Line 6

7. Amount from line 4

+ $ Blank space for dollar value
Line 7

Deemed proceeds of disposition for the building

8. Line 6 plus line 7 (enter this amount in column 3 of Area E and include it in column 5 of Area A)

= $ Blank space for dollar value
Line 8

If you have a terminal loss on the building, include it at line 9948, Terminal loss.

Usually, you can deduct 100% of a terminal loss, but only 50% of a capital loss. Calculation B makes sure you use the same percentage to calculate both a terminal loss on a building and a capital loss on land. As a result of this calculation, you add 50% of the amount on line 5 to the actual proceeds of disposition from the building (see Terminal loss).

Replacement property

In some cases, you can postpone or defer including a capital gain or recapture of CCA in calculating income. Your property might be stolen, destroyed or expropriated, and you replace it with a similar one. To defer reporting the gain or recapture of CCA, you (or a person related to you) must acquire the replacement property within the specified time limits and use the new property for the same or similar purpose.

You can also defer a capital gain or recapture when you transfer rental property to a corporation, a partnership. For more information, see:

Example

During the current tax year, Paul bought a house to use for rental purposes. For CCA purposes, the building is classified as Class 1 with a 4% rate. It is his only rental property. The total cost was $95,000 (the sum of the $90,000 total purchase price plus $5,000 total expenses connected with the purchase). The details are as follows:

Building value (Class 1)   $75,000
Land value + $15,000
Total purchase price = $90,000
Expenses connected with the purchase    
Legal fees   $3,000
Land transfer taxes + $2,000
Total fees = $5,000

Paul's rental activity is reported on a December 31 year-end basis. Paul's rental income was $6,000 and his rental expenses were $4,900. Therefore, his net rental income before deducting CCA was $1,100 ($6,000  $4,900). Paul wants to deduct as much CCA as he can.

Before Paul can fill in his CCA schedule in Area A, he has to calculate the capital cost of the building. Since land is not depreciable property, he has to calculate the part of the expenses connected with the purchase that relates only to the building. To do this, he has to use the following formula:

Building value ÷ Total purchase price × Expenses = Part of the fees Paul can include in the building's cost

 $75,000
÷ $90,000
× $5,000 = $4,166.67

This $4,166.67 represents the part of the $5,000 in legal fees and land transfer taxes that relates to the purchase of the building. The remaining $833.33 relates to the purchase of the land. Therefore, the capital cost of the building is:

Building value (Class 1) Related expenses Capital cost of the building
$75,000.00 + $4,166.67
= $79,166.67

Paul enters $79,166.67 in column 3 of Area C and $15,833.33 ($15,000 + $833.33) on line 9923 of Area F as the capital cost of the land.

Note

Paul did not own rental property before the current year. Therefore, he has no undepreciated capital cost (UCC) to enter in column 2 of Area A.

Paul acquired his rental property during the current year. Therefore, he is subject to the half-year rule explained in Column 9 – Adjustment for current-year additions subject to the half-year rule.

His net rental income before CCA is $1,100. Paul cannot claim CCA for more than $1,100 because he cannot use his CCA to create a rental loss (see Limits on CCA). This is the case even though he would otherwise be entitled to claim $1,583.33 ([$79,166.67 × 50%] × 4%).

Chapter 5 – Principal residence

When you sell your home, you may realize a capital gain. If the property was used solely as your principal residence for every year you owned it, you do not have to pay tax on the gain. If at any time during the period you owned the property, it was not your principal residence, or used solely as your principal residence, you may have to pay tax on all or part of the capital gain.

If you sold property in 2021 that was, at any time, your principal residence, you must report the sale on Schedule 3, Capital Gains (or Losses), in 2021, and Form T2091(IND), Designation of a Property as a Principal Residence by an Individual (Other Than a Personal Trust). See Schedule 3, Form T2091(IND) and Guide T4037, Capital Gains, for additional information on how to report the disposition of your principal residence.

If you want more information after reading this chapter, see Income Tax Folio S1-F3-C2, Principal Residence.

Find out what your principal residence is

Your principal residence can be any of the following types of housing units:

A property qualifies as your principal residence, for any year, if it meets all of the following conditions:

The land on which your home is located can be part of your principal residence. Usually, the amount of land that you can consider as part of your principal residence is limited to one-half hectare (1.24 acres). If you can show that you need more land to use and enjoy your home, you can consider more than 1.24 acres as part of your principal residence. For example, this may happen if the minimum lot size imposed by a municipality at the time you bought the property is larger than one-half hectare.

Designating a principal residence

You designate your home as your principal residence when you sell or are considered to have sold all or part of it. You can designate your home as your principal residence for the years that you own and use it as your principal residence. However, in some situations you may choose not to designate your home as your principal residence for one or more of those years. For more information, see Form T2091(IND), Designation of a Property as a Principal Residence by an Individual (Other Than a Personal Trust), and Form T1255, Designation of a Property as a Principal Residence by the Legal Representative of a Deceased Individual.

Number of principal residences you can designate

For years before 1982, more than one housing unit per family can be designated as a principal residence. Therefore, a husband and wife can designate different principal residences for these years. However, a special rule applies if members of a family designate more than one home as a principal residence. For more information, see Income Tax Folio S1-F3-C2, Principal Residence.

For 1982 and later years, you can only designate one home as your family's principal residence for each year. For more information, see Income Tax Folio S1-F3-C2, Principal Residence.

For 1982 to 2000, if you had a spouse or were 18 or older, your family included:

If you did not have a spouse and were not 18 or older, your family also included:

For 1993 to 2000, since a spouse included a common-law spouse, common-law spouses could not designate different housing units as their principal residences for any of those years.

Note

If you elected to have your same-sex partner considered as your common-law partner for 1998, 1999 or 2000, then, for those years, your common-law partner also could not designate a different housing unit as his or her principal residence.

After the year 2000, the above definition applies except that the reference to spouse is replaced by "spouse or common-law partner." Neither spouses nor common-law partners (see Definitions) can designate different housing units as their principal residence.

Disposition of your principal residence

When you sell your home or when you are considered to have sold it, usually you do not have to pay tax on any gain from the sale. This is the case if the property was used solely as your principal residence for every year you owned it or for all years except one year, being the year in which you replaced your principal residence. If you sold your home in 2021 and it was your principal residence you have to report the sale and designate the property on Schedule 3, Capital Gains (or Losses). In addition, you also have to complete Form T2091(IND), Designation of a Property as a Principal Residence by an Individual (Other Than a Personal Trust). Complete only page 1 of Form T2091 if the property you sold was your principal residence for all the years you owned it, or for all years except one year, being the year in which you replaced your principal residence.

For the sale of a principal residence in 2021, we will only allow the principal residence exemption if you report the disposition and designation of your principal residence on your income tax return. If you forget to make this designation in the year of the disposition, it is very important to ask us to amend your income tax return for that year. The CRA can accept a late designation in certain circumstances, but a penalty may apply. For more information, see Guide T4037, Capital Gains.

If your home was not your principal residence for every year that you owned it, you have to report the amount of the capital gain on the property that relates to the years you did not designate it as your principal residence. To do this, fill in Form T2091(IND) (see the next section). You are also required to complete the applicable sections of Schedule 3 as indicated on page 2 of the schedule.

If only a part of your home qualifies as your principal residence and you used the other part to earn or produce income, you have to split the selling price and the adjusted cost base between the part you used for your principal residence and the part you used for other purposes, such as rental or business. You can do this by using square metres or the number of rooms, as long as the split is reasonable. Report on line 13800 of Schedule 3 only the gain on the part you used to produce income. For more information, see Income Tax Folio S1-F3-C2, Principal Residence. You are also required to complete page 2 of Schedule 3 to report the sale of your principal residence.

There are certain situations in which we will consider the entire property maintains its nature as a principal residence in spite of the fact that you have used it for income producing purposes. However, all of the following conditions must be met:

This situation could occur, for example, where the property is used as a home daycare. For more information, see Income Tax Folio S1-F3-C2, Principal Residence.

If you sold more than one property in the same calendar year and each property was, at one time, your principal residence, you must show this by completing a separate Form T2091(IND) for each property to designate what years each was your principal residence and to calculate the amount of capital gain, if any, to report on line 15800 of Schedule 3, Capital Gains (or Losses), in 2021.

For more information on how to report the capital gain resulting from the disposition of your principal residence, see Guide T4037, Capital Gains.

Form T2091(IND), Designation of a Property as a Principal Residence by an Individual (Other Than a Personal Trust), and Form T1255, Designation of a Property as a Principal Residence by the Legal Representative of a Deceased Individual

Use Form T2091(IND) to designate a property as a principal residence. This form will help you calculate the number of years that you can designate your home as your principal residence, and the part of the capital gain, if any, that you have to report. Fill in this form if you:

Note

A legal representative of a deceased person (executor, administrator or a liquidator in Quebec) must use Form T1255, Designation of a Property as a Principal Residence by the Legal Representative of a Deceased Individual, to designate a property as a principal residence for the deceased.

If you or your spouse or common-law partner file Form T664 or Form T664 (Seniors)

Use Form T2091(IND) to calculate the capital gain if you sell, or are considered to have sold, a property for which you or your spouse or common-law partner previously filed Form T664 or Form T664 (Seniors), Election to Report a Capital Gain on Property Owned at the End of February 22, 1994, and:

Use Form T2091(IND)-WS, Principal Residence Worksheet, to calculate a reduction from the capital gains election. If the property was designated as a principal residence for the purpose of the capital gains election, you have to include those previous years it was designated in the current year.

Note

If, at the time of the election, the property was designated as a principal residence for any tax year other than 1994, you can choose to designate it again as your principal residence when you sell it or are considered to have sold it. If you choose to designate it again, you have to include those previously designated tax years as part of your principal residence designation in the current tax year.

If the property was not your principal residence for 1994 and you are not designating it in 2021 as your principal residence for any tax year, do not use Form T2091(IND) and Form T2091(IND)-WS to calculate your capital gain. Instead, calculate your capital gain, if any, in the regular way (proceeds of disposition minus the adjusted cost base and outlays and expenses).

Change in use

You can be considered to have sold all or part of your property even though you did not actually sell it.

For example, this is the case when:

Every time you change the use of a property, you are considered to have sold the property at its fair market value (FMV) and to have immediately reacquired the property for the same FMV, unless you make an election as described below. The resulting capital gain or capital loss (in certain situations) must be reported in the year the change of use occurs.

If the property was your principal residence for any year you owned it before you changed its use, you do not have to pay tax on any gain that relates to those years. You only have to report the gain that relates to the years your home was not your principal residence.

Note

Your home is personal-use property for your own use. If you have a loss when we consider you to have sold your home because of a change in use, you are not allowed to claim the loss.

Special situations

There are situations to which the change-in-use rules stated above do not apply. The following are some of the more common situations.

Changing all your principal residence to a rental property

When you change your principal residence to a rental property, you can make an election not to be considered as having started to use your principal residence as a rental property. This means you do not have to report any capital gain when you change its use. If you make this election, you cannot claim CCA on the property. Any income from a property, minus any applicable expenses, must be reported for tax purposes.

While your election is in effect, you can designate the property as your principal residence for up to four years, even if you do not use your property as your principal residence. You can only do this if you do not designate any other property as your principal residence for that same time period.

You can extend the four-year limit for an unlimited time if all of the following conditions are met:

If you make this election, there is no immediate effect on your tax situation when you move back into your residence. If you change the use of the property again and do not make this election again, any gain you have from the sale of the property is a capital gain and may be subject to tax.

To make this election, attach a letter signed by you, and send it with your income tax return. If you are filing your taxes electronically, send this letter to your tax centre. To find your tax centre go to Find a CRA address. The letter must describe the property and state that you are making an election under subsection 45(2) of the federal Income Tax Act.

If you started to use your principal residence as a rental or business property in the year, you may want information on how you should report your business or property income. If so, see Guide T4002, Self-employed Business, Professional, Commission, Farming, and Fishing Income.

Changing all your rental property to a principal residence

When you change your rental property to a principal residence, you can elect to postpone reporting the disposition of your property until you actually sell it. However, you cannot make this election if you, your spouse or common-law partner, or a trust under which you or your spouse or common-law partner is a beneficiary has deducted CCA on the property for any tax year after 1984, and on or before the day you change its use.

This election only applies to a capital gain. If you claimed CCA on the property before 1985, you have to include any recapture of CCA in your rental income. Include the income in the year the property use was changed:

If you make this election, you can designate the property as your principal residence for up to four years before you occupy it as your principal residence.

Changing part of your principal residence to a rental property or vice versa

Before March 19, 2019, you could not elect to avoid the deemed disposition that occurs on a partial change in the use of a property. However, starting on March 19, 2019, depending on your situation, you can elect under subsection 45(2) or 45(3) of the federal Income Tax Act that the deemed position that normally arises on a partial change in use of property not apply.

Even if you do not make the election, if you started to use part of your principal residence for rental or business purposes, the CRA usually considers you to have changed the use of that part of your principal residence unless all of the following conditions apply:

Generally, if you do not meet all of the above conditions, you will have a deemed disposition of the portion of property that had the change of use, and immediately after, you will be deemed to have reacquired that portion of property. The proceeds of disposition and the cost of the reacquisition will be equal to the proportionate share of the FMV of the property, determined at that time. Additionally, in the year the partial change in use occurs, you can make a principal residence designation (for the portion of the property that had the change in use), by completing page 2 of Schedule 3, Capital Gains (or Losses), and page 1 of Form T2091(IND), Designation of a Property as a Principal Residence by an Individual (Other Than a Personal Trust).

Subsequently, when you actually sell the property you have to take all of the following actions:

For more information, see Real estate, depreciable property, and other properties in Guide T4037, Capital Gains.

Digital services

The CRA's digital services are fast, easy, and secure!

My Account

My Account lets you view and manage your personal income tax and benefit information online. Find out how to register at My Account for Individuals.

MyCRA mobile web app

The MyCRA mobile web app lets you access key portions of your tax information. Access the app at Mobile apps – Canada Revenue Agency.

Use My Account or MyCRA to:

You can also use My Account to:

Receiving your CRA mail online

Sign up for email notifications to find out when your CRA mail, like your notice of assessment, is available online.

For more information, go to Email notifications from the CRA – Individuals.

Handling business taxes online

Use the CRA's digital services for businesses throughout the year to:

To log in to or register for the CRA's digital services, go to:

For more information, go to E-services for businesses.

CRA BizApp

CRA BizApp is a mobile web app that offers secure access for small business owners and sole proprietors to view accounting transactions, pay outstanding balances, make interim payments, and more.

You can access CRA BizApp on any mobile device with an Internet browser—no app stores needed! To access the app, go to Mobile apps – Canada Revenue Agency.

Receiving your CRA mail online

Sign up for email notifications to find out when your CRA mail, like your notice of assessment, is available online.

For more information, go to Email notifications form the CRA – Businesses.

Authorizing the withdrawal of a pre-determined amount from your Canadian chequing account

PAD is a secure online, self-service, payment option for individuals and businesses to pay their taxes. A PAD lets you authorize withdrawals from your Canadian chequing account to pay the CRA. You can set the payment dates and amounts of your PAD agreement using the CRA's secure My Business Account service at My Business Account, or the CRA BizApp at Mobile apps – Canada Revenue Agency. PADs are flexible and managed by you. You can use My Business Account to view historical records and modify, cancel, or skip a payment. For more information, go to Pay by pre-authorized debit.

MyBenefits CRA mobile app

Get your benefit information on the go! Use MyBenefits CRA mobile app throughout the year to:

For more information, go to Mobile apps – Canada Revenue Agency.

Electronic payments

For more information on all payment options, go to Payments to the CRA.

For more information

If you need help

If you need more information after reading this guide, go to Taxes or call 1-800-959-8281.

Direct deposit

Direct deposit is a fast, convenient, and secure way to get your CRA payments directly into your account at a financial institution in Canada. For more information and ways to enrol, go to Direct deposit.

Forms and publications

The CRA encourages electronic filing of your return. If you need a paper version of the CRA's forms and publications, go to Forms and publications or call 1-800-959-8281.

Electronic mailing lists

The CRA can notify you by email when new information on a subject of interest to you is available on the website. To subscribe to the electronic mailing lists, go to Canada Revenue Agency electronic mailing lists.

Tax Information Phone Service (TIPS)

For tax information by telephone, use our automated service, TIPS, by calling 1-800-267-6999.

Teletypewriter (TTY) users

If you have a hearing or speech impairment and use a TTY, call 1-800-665-0354.

If you use an operator-assisted relay service, call our regular telephone numbers instead of the TTY number.

Service complaints

You can expect to be treated fairly under clear and established rules, and get a high level of service each time you deal with the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA). For more information about the Taxpayer Bill of Rights, go to Taxpayer Bill of Rights.

If you are not satisfied with the service you received:

  1. Try to resolve the matter with the CRA employee you have been dealing with or call the telephone number provided in the CRA's correspondence. If you do not have contact information, go to Contact the Canada Revenue Agency.
  2. If you have not been able to resolve your service-related issue, you can ask to discuss the matter with the employee's supervisor.
  3. File a service complaint by filling out Form RC193, Service Feedback. For more information and to learn how to file a complaint, go to Submit service feedback.

If you are not satisfied with how the CRA has handled your service-related complaint, you can submit a complaint to the Office of the Taxpayers' Ombudsperson.

Formal disputes (objections and appeals)

If you disagree with an assessment, a determination, or decision, you have the right to file a formal dispute.

For more information about objections and formal disputes, and related deadlines, go to Service feedback, objections, appeals, disputes, and relief measures.

Reprisal complaints

If you have previously submitted a service complaint or requested a formal review of a CRA decision and feel you were not treated impartially by a CRA employee, you can submit a reprisal complaint by filling out Form RC459, Reprisal Complaint.

For more information about complaints and disputes, go to Service feedback, objections, appeals, disputes, and relief measures.

Due dates

When a due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or public holiday recognized by the CRA, your return is considered on time if the CRA receives it or if it is postmarked on or before the next business day.

For more information, go to Due dates and payment dates.

Cancel or waive penalties or interest

The CRA administers legislation, commonly called taxpayer relief provisions, that allows the CRA discretion to cancel or waive penalties or interest when taxpayers cannot meet their tax obligations due to circumstances beyond their control.

The CRA's discretion to grant relief is limited to any period that ended within 10 calendar years before the year in which a request is made.

For penalties, the CRA will consider your request only if it relates to a tax year or fiscal period ending in any of the 10 calendar years before the year in which you make your request. For example, your request made in 2020 must relate to a penalty for a tax year or fiscal period ending in 2010 or later.

For interest on a balance owing for any tax year or fiscal period, the CRA will consider only the amounts that accrued during the 10 calendar years before the year in which you make your request. For example, your request made in 2020 must relate to interest that accrued in 2010 or later.

To make a request, fill out Form RC4288, Request for Taxpayer Relief – Cancel or Waive Penalties or Interest. For more information about relief from penalties or interest and how to submit your request, go to Cancel or waive penalties or interest.

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