Apply for citizenship: Who can apply
To be eligible to become a Canadian citizen, you must:
- be a permanent resident
- have lived in Canada for 3 out of the last 5 years
- have filed your taxes, if you need to
- show how well you know Canada
- prove your language skills
If you served in or with the Canadian Armed Forces, you may be able to apply through a faster process.
Permanent resident status
Regardless of your age, if you’re applying for citizenship, you must have permanent resident (PR) status in Canada.
This means you must not:
- be under review for immigration or fraud reasons
- be asked by Canadian officials to leave Canada (removal order)
- have unfulfilled conditions related to your PR status, for example: medical screening
Before applying for citizenship, you should review the documents you received when you became a permanent resident to make sure you’ve met all of your terms and conditions.
You don’t need a valid PR card to apply for citizenship. You can apply with an expired PR card.
Time you’ve lived in Canada
Adults and some minors must have been physically present in Canada for at least 1095 days during the five years right before the date you sign your application.
We encourage you to apply with more than 1095 days of physical presence to have extra days in case there is a problem with the calculation.
Use a travel journal to record your trips outside Canada. It will help you calculate your physical presence in Canada.
You may be able to use some of your time spent in Canada as a temporary resident or protected person towards your physical presence calculation. Crown servants and family members of Crown servants may be able to use time spent outside Canada.Calculate how much time you lived in Canada
Filing income tax
You need to have filed taxes in Canada for at least 3 years during the 5 years right before the date you apply, if you needed to.
Canada has two official languages: English and French. If you’re 18 to 54 years of age on the day you sign your application, you must show that you can speak and listen at a specific level in one of these languages.
The ways we measure your language skills in English or French include:
- reviewing the proof you send with your application
- noting how well you communicate when you talk to a citizenship official anytime during the process
- assessing your language level during a hearing with a citizenship official, if necessary
To become a citizen, you need to meet the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) Level 4 or higher. This means you can:
- take part in short, everyday conversations about common topics
- understand simple instructions, questions and directions
- use basic grammar, including simple structures and tenses
- show you know enough common words and phrases to answer questions and express yourself
We accept various certificates, diplomas and tests as proof of your language skills.Find out if we accept your certificate, diploma or test results as proof
How well you know Canada
If you’re 18 to 54 years of age on the day you sign your application, you need to take the citizenship test. You’ll need to answer questions about the rights and responsibilities of Canadians and Canada’s:
The test is:
- in English or French
- 30 minutes long
- 20 questions (pass mark: 15 correct answers)
- multiple-choice and true or false questions
- based on the official citizenship study guide: Discover Canada
- usually written, but may be oral
Learn more about the citizenship test.
If you committed a crime in or outside Canada, you may not be eligible to become a Canadian citizen for a period of time.
Time spent serving a term of imprisonment, on parole, or on probation doesn’t count as time you have lived in Canada.
Read more about situations that may prevent you from becoming a Canadian citizen.
Check your eligibility
Answer some questions to help you find out if you’re ready to apply for citizenship. These questions are for adults (age 18 and over) who want to apply for citizenship. Minors (under age 18) have some different requirements.Check your eligibility
Top questions about Canadian citizenship
- What are the requirements for becoming a Canadian citizen?
- I already have a citizenship application in process. How will the 2017 changes to the citizenship legislation affect my application?
- Do I become a Canadian when I marry a Canadian?
- How much does it cost to apply for Canadian citizenship?
- I am a citizen of another country. Will I lose that citizenship if I become a Canadian?
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