Summary of flame retardant assessments and management conducted under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

This page provides a summary of risk assessment and management of flame retardant substances assessed under the Government of Canada’s Chemicals Management Plan (CMP).   This page does not provide a summary of all the Government of Canada initiatives related to flame retardants or flammability standards. Information on the Government’s other initiatives can be found on the Government of Canada’s website.

Flame retardant substances are a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics, foams, rubbers, textiles, and surface finishes and coatings, for the purpose of slowing the ignition and spread of fire.  This flame retardant summary page has been prepared to: 

First launched in 2006, the CMP provides a framework for assessing and managing the risks associated with chemical substances.  The CMP achieves this through the systematic prioritization, risk assessment and, as appropriate, risk management of existing and new chemicals supported by monitoring, surveillance, research and program and policy management.  Further information and updates on risk management actions can be found in the CMP risk management actions table and the risk management activities and consultations schedule.

Pursuant to sections 68 and 74 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA), the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health conduct screening assessments of substances to determine whether these substances present or may present a risk to the environment or to human health.  A substance may be found toxic (section 64 in Part 5 of CEPA) if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that:have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity

(a) have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity

(b) constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends

(c) constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health

If a substance is determined to be toxic as defined in section 64 of CEPA 1999, the Minister has an obligation to make risk management instruments for any toxic substance that met the criteria set out under s 73 of CEPA.  The conclusions and risk management measures for flame retardant substances are summarized in four tables, as follows:

Notes:

  1. Information provided on this page was updated on [DATE OF PUBLICATION]
  2. For detailed information regarding the assessment of substances listed on this webpage, a link to screening assessments is provided.
  3. Proposed conclusions from draft screening assessment reports or draft state of science reports may be subject to change upon publication of final screening assessment reports or final state of science reports.
  4. Substances may be reevaluated in the future and final conclusions may be subject to change upon receipt of new information and/or increases in use/exposure.
  5. Caution statements and risk management measures relate to important information regarding all uses of the substance, including use as a flame retardant.
Table 1 - Flame retardants found not harmful to human health or the environment
CAS RNDomestic Substances List name Common name (acronym)Assessment status under CEPA 1999Risk management measures and caution statementsAdditional information
1309-64-4Antimony oxide (Sb2O3)Antimony trioxideNot harmful to human health or the environmentn/a
126-73-8Phosphoric acid tributyl esterTributyl phosphate (TBP)Not harmful to human health or the environmentn/a
25327-89-3Benzene, 1,1'-(1-methylethylidene)bis[3,5-dibromo-4-(2-propenyloxy)-TBBPA bis(allyl ether)Not harmful to human health or the environmentn/an/a
4162-45-2Ethanol, 2,2'-[(1-methylethylidene)bis[(2,6-dibromo-4,1-phenylene) oxy]]bis-TBBPA bis(2-hydroxyethyl ether) Not harmful to human health or the environmentn/an/a
32588-76-41H-Isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione, 2,2'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis[4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-ethylene bis(tetrabromo phthalimide) (EBTBP) Not harmful to human health or the environmentn/a
Table 2 - Flame retardants found not harmful to human health or the environment with a caution statement and/or associated risk management measures
CAS RNDomestic Substances List nameCommon name (acronym)Assessment status under CEPA 1999Risk management measures and caution statementsAdditional information
1330-78-5Phosphoric acid, tris(methylphenyl) esterTricresyl Phosphate (TCP)Not harmful to human health or the environmentListed as a prohibited ingredient as communicated in Health Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist
77-47-41,3-Cyclopentadiene, 1,2,3,4,5,5-hexachloro-Hexachlorocyclo pentadieneNot harmful to human health or the environmentThis substance was initially classified as having a moderate potential for ecological risk, however, the risk classification was decreased to low potential for ecological risk following the adjustment of risk classification based on current use quantities. The ecological risk classification of organic substances (ERC) classified this substance as potentially having a high potency. The potential effects and how they may manifest in the environment were not further investigated due to the low ecological exposure of this substance.
79-94-7Phenol, 4,4'-(1-methylethylidene)bis[2,6-dibromo-TBBPANot harmful to human health or the environmentAlthough there is currently limited exposure in Canada to TBBPA and its concentrations currently in the environment are not indicative of harm to organisms in Canada, there may be concerns if new activities were to occur, including increased volume of manufacture, import or use, which may result in increased exposure to organisms in Canada.n/a
52434-90-91,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, 1,3,5-tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)-TDBP-TAZTONot harmful to human health or the environmentSince TDBP-TAZTO is recognized for hazardous properties for the environment, there is suspicion that new activities that have not been identified or assessed could lead to this substance meeting the criteria set out in section 64 of CEPA 1999.
608-71-9Phenol, pentabromo-PBPNot harmful to human health or the environmentGiven the hazardous Persistence, Bioaccumulation and inherent Toxicity (PBiT) properties of this substance, there is concern that new activities for the above substances which have not been identified or assessed under CEPA 1999 could lead to the substances meeting the criteria set out in section 64 of the Act.
593-60-2Ethene, bromo-Ethene, bromo-Not harmful to human health or the environmentGiven the potential effects of concern for human health, there is concern that new activities for this substance which have not been identified or assessed under CEPA 1999 could lead to the substance meeting the criteria set out in section 64 of the Act.
3296-90-01,3-Propanediol, 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-Propanediol, 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-Not harmful to human health or the environmentGiven the potential effects of concern for human health, there is concern that new activities for this substance which have not been identified or assessed under CEPA 1999 could lead to the substance meeting the criteria set out in section 64 of the Act.
115-28-6Bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-Chlorendic AcidNot harmful to human health or the environmentGiven the potential effects of concern for human health, there is concern that new activities for this substance which have not been identified or assessed under CEPA 1999 could lead to the substance meeting the criteria set out in section 64 of the Act.
26446-73-1Phosphoric acid, bis(methylphenyl) phenyl esterDMPPNot harmful to human health or the environmentEcological Risk Classification of Organic Substances (ERC) classified this substance as having low potential for risk on the basis of current use patterns; however, it is structurally similar to substances having a higher potential for risk. The potential effects and how they may manifest in the environment were not further investigated due to the low ecological exposure of this substance. The risk classification outcome for this substance was adjusted to low risk on the basis of its low potential for exposure.
3278-89-5Benzene, 1,3,5-tribromo-2-(2-propenyloxy)-ATELow potential for harm to human health or the environmentaAlthough present estimated levels of exposure of ATE are not indicative of harm to the environment or to human health, there may be concerns if import and use quantities were to increase in Canada. As ATE is a commercial alternative to other flame retardants, there is a possibility that quantities could increase in Canada. Given that ATE is not on the DSL, the substance will continue to be subject to section 81 of the Act and the New Substances Notifications Regulations (Chemicals and Polymers) of CEPA.
68527-01-5Alkenes, C12-30 α-, bromo chloroAlkenes, C12-30 α-, bromo chloroNot harmful to human health or the environmentOn the basis of additional evaluation, the ERC classification of ecological risk of the substance decreased following publication of the science approach document. However, it is noted that the ERC hazard for this substance is listed as high.
68527-02-6Alkenes, C12-24, chloroAlkenes, C12-24, chloroNot harmful to human health or the environmentOn the basis of additional evaluation, the ERC classification of ecological risk of the substance decreased following publication of the science approach document. However, it is noted that the ERC hazard for this substance is listed as high.
26040-51-71,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-, bis(2-ethylhexyl) esterbis(2-ethylhexyl) 3,4,5,6-tetra bromophthalate (TBPH)Low potential for harm to human health or the environmentaAlthough present estimated levels of exposure of TBB and TBPH are not indicative of harm to the environment or to human health, it is important to recognize that these substances are new substances, as they are not on the DSL, and that Ministerial Conditions are the New Substances Notification Regulations (Chemicals and Polymers) impose handling stewardship practices to prevent releases of these substances to the environment. There may be concerns if import and use quantities were to increase in Canada or if Ministerial Conditions were not in place. As TBB and TBPH are among commercial alternatives to high-volume legacy flame retardants like Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and noting that TBPH has high-production volume status in other jurisdictions, there is a probability that quantities could increase in Canada. Given that TBB and TBPH are not on the DSL, they will continue to be subject to the New Substances Notifications Regulations (Chemicals and Polymers) of CEPA.
183658-27-7benzoic acid, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-, 2-ethylhexyl ester2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetra bromobenzoate
(TBB)
Low potential for harm to human health or the environmentaAlthough present estimated levels of exposure of TBB and TBPH are not indicative of harm to the environment or to human health, it is important to recognize that these substances are new substances, as they are not on the DSL, and that Ministerial Conditions are the New Substances Notification Regulations (Chemicals and Polymers) impose handling stewardship practices to prevent releases of these substances to the environment. There may be concerns if import and use quantities were to increase in Canada or if Ministerial Conditions were not in place. As TBB and TBPH are among commercial alternatives to high-volume legacy flame retardants like Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and noting that TBPH has high-production volume status in other jurisdictions, there is a probability that quantities could increase in Canada. Given that TBB and TBPH are not on the DSL, they will continue to be subject to the New Substances Notifications Regulations (Chemicals and Polymers) of CEPA.

Notes:  a Assessment status from State of Science Report instead of Screening Assessment Report

Table 3 - Flame retardants found harmful to human health or the environment
CAS RNDomestic Substances List nameCommon name (acronym)Assessment status under CEPA 1999Risk management measures and caution statementsAdditional information
13560-89-91,4:7,10-Dimethanodibenzo[a,e]cyclooctene, 1,2,3,4,7,8,9,10,13,13,14,14-dodecachloro-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,10,10a,11,12,12a-dodecahydro-Dechlorane Plus (DP)Harmful to the environmentThe proposed risk management action is to amend the Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances, 2012 to prohibit the manufacture, import, use, sale and offer for sale of DP and all products containing the substance
84852-53-9Benzene, 1,1'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis[2,3,4,5,6-pentabromo-Decabromo diphenyl ethane (DBDPE)Harmful to the environmentThe proposed risk management action is to amend the Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances, 2012 to prohibit the manufacture, import, use, sale and offer for sale of DBDPE and all products containing the substance
115-96-8Ethanol, 2-chloro-, phosphate (3:1)Tri(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP)Harmful to human health
3194-55-6Cyclododecane, 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromoHexabromocyclo dodecane (HBCD)Harmful to the environment
13654-09-61,1'-Biphenyl, 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6' DecabromoDecabromo biphenylHarmful to the environment
  • Substance included in polybrominated biphenyls that have the molecular formula C12H(10-n)Brn in which “n” is greater than 2
27858-07-7Tetrabromo(tetrabromophenyl)benzeneTetrabromo(tetra bromophenyl) benzeneHarmful to the environment
  • Substance included in polybrominated biphenyls that have the molecular formula C12H(10-n)Brn in which “n” is greater than 2
36355-01-8Hexabromo -1,1'-biphenylHexabromo biphenyl (HBB)Harmful to the environment
  • Substance included in polybrominated biphenyls that have the molecular formula C12H(10-n)Brn in which “n” is greater than 2
1163-19-5Benzene, 1,1'-oxybis[2,3,4,5,6-pentabromo-Decabromo diphenyl ether (decaBDE)Harmful to the environment
32534-81-9Benzene, 1,1'-oxybis, pentabromo deriv.Pentabromo diphenyl ether (pentaBDE)Harmful to the environment
32536-52-0Benzene, 1,1'-oxybis, octabromo deriv.octabromodiphenyl ether (octaBDE)Harmful to the environment
36483-60-0Benzene, 1,1'-oxybis,hexabromo deriv.Hexabromo diphenyl ether (hexaBDE)Harmful to the environment
40088-47-9Benzene, 1,1'-oxybis, tetrabromo deriv.Tetrabromo diphenyl ether (tetraBDE)Harmful to the environment
63936-56-1Benzene, pentabromo(tetrabromophenoxy)-Nonabromo diphenyl ether (nonaBDE)Harmful to the environment
68928-80-3Benzene, 1,1'-oxybis-, heptabromo deriv.Heptabromo diphenyl ether (heptaBDE)Harmful to the environment
Table 4 - Flame retardants under evaluation
CAS RNDomestic Substances List nameCommon name (acronym)Assessment status under CEPA 1999Risk management measures and caution statementsAdditional information
13674-84-52-Propanol, 1-chloro-, phosphate (3:1)TCPPProposed harmful to human health
n/aBoric Acid, its Salts and its PrecursorsBoric acid, its salts and its precursorsProposed harmful to human health and the environmentn/a
13674-87-82-Propanol, 1,3-dichloro-, phosphate (3:1)TDCPPProposed harmful to human health
108-78-11,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triamineMelamineProposed harmful to human health
25155-23-1Phenol, dimethyl-, phosphate (3:1)Trixylyl phosphate (TXP)Requires further assessmentn/a
58965-66-5Benzene, 1,2,4,5-tetrabromo-3,6-bis(pentabromophenoxy)-TDBDPBUnder evaluationn/a
115-86-6Phosphoric acid, triphenyl esterTriphenyl phosphate (TPHP)Under evaluationn/a
29761-21-5Phosphoric acid, isodecyl diphenyl esterIDDPUnder evaluationn/a
298-07-7Phosphoric acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) esterBEHPUnder evaluationn/a
56803-37-3Phosphoric acid, (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl diphenyl esterBPDPUnder evaluationn/a
65652-41-7Phosphoric acid, bis[(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl] phenyl esterBDMEPPPUnder evaluationn/a
68937-41-7Phenol, isopropylated, phosphate (3:1)IPPPUnder evaluationn/a
78-40-0Phosphoric acid, triethyl esterTEPUnder evaluationn/a
78-42-2Phosphoric acid, tris(2-ethylhexyl) ester
TEHPUnder evaluationn/a
78-51-3Ethanol, 2-butoxy-, phosphate (3:1)TBOEPUnder evaluationn/a
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